Assuming, to begin with, that you don't want bitmap fonts embedded in the PDF, here are some facts about the problem. I'll deal with pdfLaTeX, for XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX with
fontspec it's a different matter.
With the default OT1 encoding, accents are realized by combining two characters, which makes impossible doing "copy-paste".
The font must be available in
In order to do "copy-paste" from the PDF, the font should also have a correct correspondence between the glyphs and their names.
The link between a TeX font and its Type1 counterpart is provided by the
pdftex.map file. When you use the default output encoding and Computer Modern fonts, the relevant line in
cmr10 CMR10 <cmr10.pfb
The first column is the TeX font name, the second is the PostScript name found in the loaded file, which is
cmr10.pfb. Note that when using 11pt type you really are using the scaled 10 point font.
When the T1 output encoding is chosen, instead of the Computer Modern fonts, an extension with accented characters is used: the European Modern fonts. They are not exactly alike CM fonts, but for practical purposes we assume they are. The relevant line in
ecrm1095 SFRM1095 " T1Encoding ReEncodeFont " <cm-super-t1.enc <sfrm1095.pfb
which is more complex than the other one. The
sfrm1095.pfb font file indeed contains a huge number of glyphs: it is used also for the TS1, T2A, T2B, T2C and X2 encodings (text companion and Cyrillic fonts). Thus only a part of it must be picked up, which is done by the
These Type1 counterparts for the European Modern fonts are provided by the so-called CM-Super fonts, that are not included in minimal distributions. So if you want that people can compile the same TeX document with the same result, ensure they have the (meta)package from their TeX distribution.
An alternative is using Latin Modern fonts. When you have a document such as
the Type1 font will be chosen according to the line
ec-lmr10 LMRoman10-Regular " enclmec ReEncodeFont " <lm-ec.enc <lmr10.pfb
fontenc package, the font will be given by
rm-lmr10 LMRoman10-Regular " enclmrm ReEncodeFont " <lm-rm.enc <lmr10.pfb
lm-rm.enc file also glyphs in the "upper half" of the font table are defined, but the correspondence is only similar to the Latin-1 encoding.
If you plan to use accented characters in your TeX input file, always add the corresponding call of
inputenc and the correct call of
fontenc. Otherwise you might get surprising results, as the following MWE shows (note the commented out lines):
% -*- coding: latin-1 -*-
You'd get the same by uncommenting only the