I am writing in French and there are many accents. I can see them in the whole document except in the table of contents.

When I compile and preview my document in Texmaker, I can see the french accent in the table of contents:

But when I check the actual pdf that is produced with Adobe Acrobat Reader or Preview/Aperçu (Mac OS X 10.6.8 default pdf viewer), the accents are replaced by special characters as shown on the screenshot below:

This is a part of my preamble:

\documentclass[12pt,a4paper,twoside,french]{article}
\usepackage{mathptmx}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[latin9]{inputenc}
\usepackage{prettyref}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{babel}
\providecommand{\og}{\leavevmode\flqq~}%
\providecommand{\fg}{\ifdim\lastskip>\z@\unskip\fi~\frqq}%
}

The TOC file entries look like:

\select@language {french}
\contentsline {section}{Introduction}{1}{section*.2}
\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1}Contexte actuel}{2}{section.1}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.1}Contexte socio-\'economique}{2}{subsection.1.1}

How can I fix it?

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Probably you have to use \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}. See tex.stackexchange.com/a/34608/13670 –  Cylian Apr 1 '13 at 11:57
If I use just utf8 I have to type all accents like \'{e} and I have to write around 20 pages like that. There are too many accents to type. Besides, I get this error ! Package inputenc Error: Unicode char \u8:�de not set up for use with LaTeX. –  esmitex Apr 1 '13 at 12:08
How does one of the entries look in the. toc-file? –  Ulrike Fischer Apr 1 '13 at 12:21
maybe it's a font embedding problem. You could try \usepackage{lmodern} like in stackoverflow.com/questions/464140/… –  Vincent Nivoliers Apr 1 '13 at 13:56
Well I found the problem I was using \usepackage{mathpmx} with \usepackage{amsfont} just by deleting the second one it would fix the accent problem and keep the font as "Times News Roman" –  esmitex Apr 1 '13 at 14:27

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}

If this doesn't work, then please try:

\usepackage[applemac]{inputenc}
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I fixed it with the font package but I cannot choose the comment as the answer. –  esmitex Apr 3 '13 at 19:30
Well, you could wait a couple of days and post the answer yourself, or if you want I can edit mine to include yours –  Mario S. E. Apr 3 '13 at 21:43
I posted my answer. lol –  esmitex Apr 5 '13 at 15:32

I fixed the problem by removing the package usepackage{amsfont}. I didn't notice that I was using two fonts packages at the same time.

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this is indeed peculiar. amsfonts is loaded automatically by amssymb, and you have also specified that, but haven't said that you removed it. so you are still loading amsfonts (check your log). thus it appears that amsfonts may actually be compatible with mathptmx, just not when loaded twice. if you can confirm this, i will put it on the ams list of things to be looked into. –  barbara beeton Apr 5 '13 at 16:51
I am using \usepackage{mathptmx} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} and it works now but before that I had one extra amsfonts –  esmitex Apr 12 '13 at 14:49