# Change citation conjunction from “and” to “i”

How can I change the citation conjunction from english "and" to catalan "i"?

Otherwise

Author = {Kirk, D. and MacPhail, A.},


would get cited as (Kirk and MacPhail, 2002) when it should be (Kirk i MacPhail, 2002).

When there are more than 2 authors I get et al. which is fine.

I've seen Natbib change author separation to '&' and Change multiple author reference from '&' to 'and' with natbib bibliography which do not work with apalike style.

Also, I'd rather not use biblatex if possible.

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Welcome to TeX.sx! –  Kurt Apr 17 at 13:16

Welcome to TeX.SE!

The form of the typeset conjunction between authors' names is determined by the bibliography style you've selected. It would appear that you're using the apalike bibliography style. Here's what you could do:

• Find the file apalike.bst in your TeX distribution, make a copy, and name the copy, say, apalike-catalan.bst. (Do not edit an original file directly.)

• Open apalike-catalan.bst in your favorite text editor.

• Locate the two instances of " and " in the file. (In my copy, they occur on lines 225 and 851.)

Change the " and " strings to " i ".

• Save the new style file, either in the same directory as where your .tex file is located or in a directory that's searched by your TeX distribution. Update the filename database as appropriate for your TeX distribution.

• Be sure to include the directive \bibliographystyle{apalike-catalan} from now on.

Happy BibTeXing!

Addendum, prompted by the OP's follow-up question: The apacite bibliography style is indeed of a much more recent vintage than apalike. If you're going to use the apacite bibliography style, you needn't (and shouldn't) modify the bibliography style file apacite.bst. Instead, you should modify some of the definitions -- specifically, \BBAA, \BBAB, and \BAnd -- set up in the file apacite.sty. The following MWE (minimum working example) illustrates what you should do when using apacite to get the "correct" conjunction particles and the intended language is Catalan:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{apacite}
\bibliographystyle{apacite}
\renewcommand{\BBAA}{i}  % between authors in parenthetical cites and ref. list
\renewcommand{\BBAB}{i}  % between authors in in-text citation
\renewcommand{\BAnd}{i}  % for Ed. \& Trans.'' in ref. list
\begin{document}
\cite{whatever:2002}     % provide correct citation key(s)
\bibliography{mybibfile} % provide name of actual .bib file (or files)
\end{document}


Finally, note that the apacite package provides sets of language-specific adjustments -- look for files with extension .apc -- for Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German (and ngerman), Greek, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. I guess it's fair to assume that the author(s) of the apacite package would warmly welcome a Catalan addition. :-)

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Great! that worked. While trying out your solution I realized there's apacite as well, which I believe is more up-to-date of APA style, but could find any reference to " and " there. –  quimnuss Apr 17 at 13:25
@quimnuss - Please see the addendum to my answer. Basically, if you use apacite, what you need to do is to modify some of the conjunction definitions that are set up in the file apacite.sty (not apacite.bst). –  Mico Apr 17 at 14:23
Great, and much cleaner :) –  quimnuss Apr 17 at 14:57