How to solve this bibliography error?

Here is my bibliography in latex. The types is "Inprooceedings".

I use WinEdt.

``````  @INPROCEEDINGS{tem_1,
Author         = {Comelli, P, Ferragina, P, Granieri, M.N, and Stabile, F},
Title          = {Optical recognition of motor vehicle license plates},
Year           = {1995},
Volume         = {44},
Series         = {4),
Month          = {November},
Pages          = {790–799},
Publisher      = {Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions}
}
``````

But i get this error.

How to solve it?

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The character you are using in `Pages = {790–799}` is not the minus sign `-` but `–` which is U+2013 and it's not recognized as a valid character unless you declare it as such. –  karlkoeller Aug 30 '13 at 4:48
So, how to solve it? –  Farhat Mann Aug 30 '13 at 5:19
Use the minus sign `-` instead. –  karlkoeller Aug 30 '13 at 5:22
I have try to edit "Pages = {4506--4510}," / "Pages = {4506\$-\$4510}" and include the \usepackage{tabularx}. but it still doesn't work. –  Farhat Mann Aug 30 '13 at 5:47
It should be `Comelli, P.` with a final period (unless the author's name is exactly “P”). The fact that, with some styles, BibTeX will add the period doesn't change the need for stating in the `.bib` file that we have an abbreviation. –  egreg Aug 30 '13 at 6:29

1 Answer

The problem is that you're using a non-ASCII character, `–`, as the symbol to separate the first and last page of the range of pages. (Note the subtle difference between the Unicode endash symbol `–` and the "simple dash" symbol `-`.) I assume that you're using pdfLaTeX rather than either XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX; unless you've gone to some trouble to inform pdfLaTeX what it should do with the non-ASCII en-dash character, you'll get an error message such as the one you show in your posting.

There's a separate issue at stake: In some bibliography styles only the first page of a page range is shown. For BibTeX to be able to parse the contents of the `pages` field correctly and to extract just the starting page, it expects that either a single dash or a double dash are used as the range indicator. All other symbols, including the Unicode en-dash character `–`, will make BibTeX fail this task.

You should therefore use either

• a single dash, `-`, or
• a double dash, `--`

as the range indicator in the `pages` field. Do not use a Unicode en-dash, `–`, two such characters in a row `––`, a math-minus, `\$-\$`, or a double Unicode en-dash in math mode, `\$––\$`. (In your comment to @karlkoeller's suggestion, you report that you've tried `––` and `\$–\$`, i.e., with the Unicode en-dash character present.)

Incidentally, there's a separate error in the entry you show, in the `author` field. Instead of

``````author = {Comelli, P, Ferragina, P, Granieri, M.N, and Stabile, F},
``````

you shoud have

``````author = {Comelli, P. and Ferragina, P. and Granieri, M.N. and Stabile, F.},
``````

I.e., remove three commas and insert two `and` terms. Recall that `and` has a reserved meaning in author and editor fields as the separator between authors/editors. By the way, it's a really good idea to provide `.` symbols after abbreviated first and middle names.

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