I'm working on my resume in LyX and I would like my section headers to look like this. What should I write in the preamble to achieve this?

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you could use the titlesec package to modify the definition of the \section command. in lyx you can add latex-code manually by going to the document preferences: Document->Settings -> Latex preamble. I marked the part of code you have to put in your document.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[showframe]{geometry}

%to lyn preamble from here

\usepackage{titlesec}

\titleformat{\section}[leftmargin]
{\normalfont
\sffamily\bfseries\filleft}
{}{0pt}{}
\titlespacing{\section}
{4pc}{1.5ex plus .1ex minus .2ex}{1pc}

%to here

\begin{document}

\section{Objective}
\noindent
Auditing/Analysis of Operations

\section{Education}
\noindent
B.S. in Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, May 1986
Concentrations in Accounting and Management Systems
QPA 3.9 in major, 3.7 overall

\end{document}

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This works pretty well - except the header is still above the text, thus taking up space. Any way to make it aligned with the text? –  Amir Rachum Aug 7 '10 at 22:50

Er, perhaps I'm a little slow these days (go easy, guys, I'm being rhetorical), but as far as I can tell from your example, what you've got there is a table. A longtable if you want to run things over one page.

(Or am I just being painfully dense?)

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Have you looked at the europecv package?

I've been using that to write my own CV.

From CTAN:

The europecv class is an unofficial LaTeX implementation of the standard model for curricula vitae (the “Europass CV”) as recommended by the European Commission. Although primarily intended for users in the European Union, the class is flexible enough to be used for any kind of curriculum vitae.

The class has localisations for all the official languages of the EU (plus Catalan), as well as options permitting input in UTF-8 and koi8-r.

You need the res class which is downloadable from the same place.