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How can I do something like

b &= cq_1+r_1, & 0 < r_1 < c, \\
c &= r_1q_2+r_2, & 0 < r_2 < r_1, \\
r_{j-2} &= r_{j-1}q_j+r_j, & 0 < r_j < r_{j-1},

such that all of the zero's are aligned to the left? Mine defaults to align on the right...

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Use && instead of & between the two statements on each line. – Charles Staats Sep 28 '13 at 16:49
@CharlesStaats Ah! Thank you. Is there a way to make the space between each "column" smaller? – Paul Elfish Sep 28 '13 at 16:53
There's no natural way to do that using the align environment. But check out alignat. – Charles Staats Sep 28 '13 at 16:57
Regarding your formula, I suggest treating the conditions as a secondset of formula and align them as well: b &= cq_1+r_1, & 0 < r_1 &< c, – Toscho Sep 28 '13 at 17:11
@CharlesStaats fancy making your comments into a complete answer? :) – cmhughes Sep 28 '13 at 19:05

Here's an alternate way to approach the answer:

\mathrel{\Longstack[l]{= cq_1+r_1,\\= r_1q_2+r_2,\\= r_{j-1}q_j+r_j,}}
\Longstack[l]{0 < r_1 < c,\\0 < r_2 < r_1,\\0 < r_j < r_{j-1},}

enter image description here

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