You can get an older
mathdesign version from ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive/2012/tlnet-final/archive/ (I got this from How to install a package from an older version of TeXLive?). Download both files and then follow for both, TeX Live and MiKTeX, these instructions: Manual font installation.
For temporary inclusion of the old font version I cannot say anything for Linux/MacOSX*), but for Windows I do not recommend the first two points explained in MiKTeX – Integrating Local Additions:
--include-path will work for most packages, when everything is put into one folder – the now included one -, but does not work for fonts in a test here. And also this seems to be a MiKTeX specific command line option.
TEXINPUTS as system variable: In general in Windows this should be avoided. A simple
set texinputs=c:\localtexmf\ will remove the default search path of the TeX distribution – and also important: subfolders are not searched. I was not able to include them with the colported
set texinputs=c:/localtexmf// (note, that I used slashes here) in both distributions, so the usual adding of more folders with semicolons does not matter anymore.
So for MiKTeX in Windows the opportunity of adding local root directories is first choice. The root for the older
mathdesign version could then in MikTeX’ settings acticated or deactivated, and this would include an update of format files and filename data bank (FNDB).
Another idea would be to use an additional portable installation, if disk space does not matter. This would be possible for both TeX distributions. In both cases no renewal of FNDB and format files is necessary for every switch between both font versions, but you have to make sure, that all other needed packages are kept on the same level.
*)For Linux/MacOSX you can probably find an answer here: TeX Live - Definition of the TEXINPUTS variable.