# How to write Japanese with LaTeX?

I've recently started to use LaTeX but I've just encountered a problem, I tried searching it, although apparently no-one asked it before.

I'd like to write using Japanese input, but when I typeset, there can happen 3 things:

1. I get some error when compiling;
2. I get question marks where Japanese stuff should appear;
3. Nothing appears.

For example I had an example .tex file, compiled it and it worked, so I added some japanese in order to see "The author is [Japanese here]", but what I could see was "The author is [blank space]".

I've tried checking some guides, but I haven't found anything that could solve my problem (they are too old, or they don't talk about this at all).

Some minutes ago I tried compiling this:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\usepackage[romanian]{babel}
\usepackage[overlap, CJK]{ruby}
\usepackage{CJKulem}
\renewcommand{\rubysep}{-0.2ex}
\newenvironment{Japanese}{%
\CJKfamily{min}%
\CJKtilde
\CJKnospace}{}
\begin{document}
\parskip 3ex
\parindent 0pt
\begin{CJK}{UTF8}{}
\begin{Japanese}
ねこ
\end{Japanese}
\end{CJK}
\end{document}


It compiles fine but, still same problem, nothing appears when typeset, even if I should see "ねこ". There are many Linux guides, but I have a Mac and apparently, there aren't a lot around...

EDIT: A small add, if I get this to work, is the solution related to other asian languages such as Korean or Chinese?

-
@Leo Liu, @Nyiti, @Bob BeckettGuys, I found out that probably it's a matter of encoding. If I write 丸 (example) I'll get nothing like I said but if I write ¥›, it will appear properly on pdf! :| –  Alenanno Apr 13 '11 at 10:02

This blog post outlines Chinese-Japanese-Korean support in LaTeX: link

This is a minimal working example:

\documentclass{memoir}

\usepackage{CJKutf8}

\begin{document}

\begin{CJK}{UTF8}{min}未練なく散も桜はさくら哉\end{CJK} \\
without regret \\
they fall and scatter\ldots \\
cherry blossoms

\end{document}


You can compile it with the latex, dvips, ps2pdf combo or with pdflatex as well.

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Thanks for the link, the site is loading so slow though :D I'll wait until it's done... Hopefully. :) –  Alenanno Apr 11 '11 at 18:07
Sorry, it took quite some time, honestly I left it lol... I chose you because your example worked. :) –  Alenanno May 8 '11 at 18:00
I hope it works out, good luck with your project! –  Nyiti May 9 '11 at 6:45
Characters are working, I have some new problems sometimes (things like size, font choice, etc) but there is plenty of material... I might be able to solve it by myself :D –  Alenanno May 9 '11 at 8:02
Note that this example only works on Ubuntu Quetzal if you install the package latex-cjk-japanese-wadalab (via blog.mindfall.net/?p=221). –  Reid Mar 18 '13 at 23:12

# 1. XeLaTeX

For XeLaTeX, the document should be saved in UTF-8 encoding.

## 1.1. xeCJK package

I advice you to use XeLaTeX with package xeCJK. An example:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xeCJK}
\setCJKmainfont{MS Mincho} % for \rmfamily
\setCJKsansfont{MS Gothic} % for \sffamily
\begin{document}

\section{日本語}
お早う

\textsf{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


See manual of xeCJK and fontspec for more information.

Chinese and Korean work the same. In fact, xeCJK is originally designed for Chinese by Prof. 孙文昌.

xeCJK: http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/xetex/latex/xecjk/xeCJK.pdf
fontspec: http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/latex/contrib/fontspec/fontspec.pdf

## 1.2. zxjatype package

zxjatype internally calls xeCJK, with some configurations for Japanese. You can also use zxjafont package to use some predefined fonts. It is easier to use compared to raw xeCJK. An example:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{zxjatype}
\usepackage[ipa]{zxjafont}
\begin{document}

\section{日本語}
お早う

\textsf{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


zxjatype: http://zrbabbler.sp.land.to/zxjatype.html

## 1.3. bxjsclasses with zxjatype

bxjsclasses bundle provides some Japanese local classes. It can be used with different TeX engines.

\documentclass{bxjsarticle}
\usepackage{zxjatype}
\usepackage[ipa]{zxjafont}

\begin{document}

\section{日本語}
お早う

\textsf{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


# 2. LuaLaTeX

For LuaLaTeX, the document should be saved in UTF-8 encoding.

## 2.1. luatexja-fontspec package in luatexja bundle

luatexja bundle provides Japanese support for LuaTeX. A simple LaTeX example:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{luatexja-fontspec}
\setmainjfont{MS Mincho} % \mcfamily
\setsansjfont{MS Gothic} % \gtfamily

\begin{document}
\section{日本語}

お早う

\textgt{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


## 2.2. ltjsclasses classes in luatexja bundle

ltjsclasses provides some Japanese document classes for convenience. An example:

\documentclass{ltjsarticle}
\usepackage{luatexja-fontspec}
\setmainjfont{MS Mincho} % \mcfamily
\setsansjfont{MS Gothic} % \gtfamily

\begin{document}

\section{日本語}

お早う

\textgt{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


# 3. upLaTeX + ujclasses

upLaTeX is a Japanese TeX format. It needs UTF-8 encoding.

An example:

\documentclass{ujarticle}

\begin{document}

\section{日本語}

お早う

\textgt{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


Compile with

uplatex foo.tex
dvipdfmx foo.dvi


# 4. pLaTeX + jsclasses (Relatively Old)

pLaTeX is a Japanese TeX format. Documents should be saved in SJIS encoding.

An example:

% SJIS encoding
\documentclass{jsarticle}

\begin{document}

\section{日本語}

お早う

\textgt{こんにちわ}

\end{document}


Compile with

pdfplatex foo.tex


or

platex foo.tex
dvipdfmx foo.dvi


# 5. CJK package (Obsolete)

Older CJK package is still useful. It works well with PDFLaTeX and LaTeX (Dvips, dvipdfmx). If the document has only a few wide characters, CJK package may be a reasonable choice with better compatibility.

Be sure you have installed the proper CJK fonts for CJK package. Typically, this is not done. TeX Live and MiKTeX have a wadalab package, install it when necessary. (Also ipaex and ipaex-type1) Then you can use:

% UTF-8 encoding
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{UTF8}{min}

\section{日本語}
お早う

{\CJKfamily{goth} こんにちわ}

\clearpage\end{CJK*}
\end{document}


See $TEXMF/tex/latex/cjk/texinput/UTF8/c70*.fd, $TEXMF/tex/latex/cjk/contrib/wadalab/c70*.fd, etc. for pre-installed CJK font families. Frankly speaking, these free Type1 CJK fonts are not very good. It is better to install the fonts yourself.

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Thanks a lot! I'll give this all a try... It might take some time though, due to my noobness :) I'll let you know. –  Alenanno Apr 11 '11 at 10:58
If we use XeLaTeX instead of PDFLaTeX, do we lose features provided by microtype? –  I am who I say I am Mar 6 '12 at 1:10
@Damien: Develop version of microtype partly support XeTeX. –  Leo Liu Mar 6 '12 at 4:51
I can't understand how to install the wadalab package. I spent the two hours trying to install at least one of those packages, but when I came to convert .afm files to .tfm files using a not-to-be-found encoding file I came to the conclusion that I would have never been able to do such thing... I'd use Xelatex, but my nearly-finished document uses a big quantity of packages (inputenc, babel, tocbibind, makeidx, mathptmx, geometry, lipsum, fancyhdr, chngcntr, url, footmisc, etoolbox) which, I'd have to install again. How is this possible that I can't just download a package and write kanji? –  user46007 Feb 22 at 1:09
@user46007: I've no idea. I use TeX Live 2013 (updated with TeX Live Manager), and all these code was tested. –  Leo Liu Feb 22 at 16:34