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\documentclass[60pt,a4paper,twoside,openany]{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[bulgarian]{babel}
\usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
\newcommand{\HRule}{\rule{\linewidth}{0.5mm}}  % Horizontal line.

% Document body.
\begin{document}
Ляляляля!
\end{document}

I am a beginner, and am apparently missing something simple here. What I am trying to achieve is to increase the font size to 12 or maybe 14 points. However, the 12pt option to \documentclass has no effect.

I am using pdflatex to generate a pdf file from the above source.

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Possible duplicate/Related How to specify font size less than 10pt or more than 12pt? –  texenthusiast Feb 16 at 13:20
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3 Answers

The article document class doesn't recognize -- and thus doesn't do anything with -- the option 60pt. The only three font size options the article class recognizes are 10pt, 11pt, and 12pt. Other document classes -- such as memoir and the KOMA-Script classes -- recognize many more font size options; however, to the best of my knowledge they don't recognize the option 60pt either.

To change the font size within a LaTeX document, use the command sequence

\fontsize{<nominal font size>}{<baselineskip>}\selectfont

Applied to your example, assuming you want a baselineskip that's 20 percent than the nominal font size, one could generate the following sequence of progressively larger font size (using a geometric progression with a factor of 1.2):

enter image description here

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[bulgarian]{babel}
\usepackage{lmodern} % for better support of Cyrillic glyphs
\begin{document}
Ляляляля!

\fontsize{12}{14.4}\selectfont
Ляляляля!

\fontsize{14.4}{17.3}\selectfont
Ляляляля!

\fontsize{17.3}{20.7}\selectfont
Ляляляля!

\fontsize{20.7}{24.9}\selectfont
Ляляляля!

\fontsize{24.9}{29.9}\selectfont
Ляляляля!
\end{document}
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You can use one of the extsizes classes and you will be able to use one of 8pt, 9pt, 14pt, 17pt, and 20pt in addition to 10pt, 11pt, and 12pt provided by the standard classes. These classes are extensions of the standard classes which just provide more font size options.

For example, using extarticle with 20pt

\documentclass[20pt,a4paper,twoside]{extarticle}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[bulgarian]{babel}
\usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
\newcommand{\HRule}{\rule{\linewidth}{0.5mm}}  % Horizontal line.

% Document body.
\begin{document}
Ляляляля!
\end{document} 

enter image description here

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The Koma family of classes and memoir provide the facility of various font sizes.

\documentclass[version=last,fontsize=20pt]{scrartcl}
\usepackage{blindtext}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\begin{document}
\blinddocument
\end{document}

enter image description here

In case if you are tied to basic classes like article, you can make use of scrextend package, which, provides the facilities as that of Koma classes.

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage{lmodern}

\usepackage{scrextend}
\changefontsizes[24pt]{20pt}

\usepackage{blindtext}

\begin{document}

\Blinddocument

\end{document}
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