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How can one draw one of this pictures in latex with the simplest way and good looking output?enter image description here

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2 Answers 2

Here is a tikz solution. Using

\DrawHorizontalPhaseLine{0,2,4}{-0.5, 4.7}{1, 2.5}

and

\DrawVerticalPhaseLine[$y$]{0,2,4}{-0.5, 4.7}{1, 2.5}

yields:

enter image description here

The parameters to \DrawHorizontalPhaseLine are:

  1. The optional axis label to be applied (defaults to no label).
  2. The axis tick labels
  3. The positions of the right arrows as a comma separated list.
  4. The positions of the left arrows as a comma separated list.

As the arrows are added, we keep track of the \AxisMin and \AxisMax, and at the end a line is drawn to extend past that.

The \DrawVerticalPhaseLine macro accepts similar parameters for the up and down arrow locations.

Code:

\documentclass[border=2pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}

\newcommand*{\TickSize}{2pt}%

\newcommand*{\AxisMin}{0}%
\newcommand*{\AxisMax}{0}%

\newcommand*{\DrawHorizontalPhaseLine}[4][]{%
    % #1 = axis tick labels
    % #2 = right arrows positions as CSV
    % #3 = left arrow positions as CSV
    \gdef\AxisMin{0}%
    \gdef\AxisMax{0}%
    \edef\MyList{#2}% Allows for #1 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {
        \draw  (\X,\TickSize) -- (\X,-\TickSize) node [below] {$\X$};
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \edef\MyList{#3}% Allows for #2 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Right arrows
        \draw [->] (\X-0.1,0) -- (\X,0);
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \edef\MyList{#4}% Allows for #3 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Left arrows
        \draw [<-] (\X-0.1,0) -- (\X,0);
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \draw  (\AxisMin-1,0) -- (\AxisMax+1,0) node [right] {#1};
}%

\newcommand*{\DrawVerticalPhaseLine}[4][]{%
    % #1 = axis tick labels
    % #2 = up arrows positions as CSV
    % #3 = down arrow positions as CSV
    \gdef\AxisMin{0}%
    \gdef\AxisMax{0}%
    \edef\MyList{#2}% Allows for #1 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {
        \draw  (-\TickSize,\X) -- (\TickSize,\X) node [right] {$\X$};
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \edef\MyList{#3}% Allows for #2 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Up arrows
        \draw [->] (0,\X-0.1) -- (0,\X);
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \edef\MyList{#4}% Allows for #3 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Down arrows
        \draw [<-] (0,\X+0.1) -- (0,\X);
        \ifnum\AxisMin>\X
            \xdef\AxisMin{\X}%
        \fi
        \ifnum\AxisMax<\X
            \xdef\AxisMax{\X}%
        \fi
    }

    \draw  (0,\AxisMin-1) -- (0,\AxisMax+1) node [above] {#1};
}%


\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[thick]
    \DrawVerticalPhaseLine[$y$]{0,2,4}{-0.5, 4.7}{1, 2.5}%
\end{tikzpicture}
%
\begin{tikzpicture}[thick]
    \DrawHorizontalPhaseLine[$y$]{0,2,4}{-0.5, 4.7}{1, 2.5}%
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}
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Thanks a lot. How does it make to vertical line mode? How does create label $Y$ for axis? –  bigli Apr 7 at 3:58
    
@bigli: Updated to have a vertical version as well, and an optional parameter to specify the label. –  Peter Grill Apr 7 at 4:04
    
I can update your code for vertical version. But I can't create label for axis in both of them. Could you please hint me? –  bigli Apr 7 at 4:25
    
@bigli: The updated solution provides an optional first parameter which specifies the label. –  Peter Grill Apr 7 at 8:06

The vertical phase line shows all up arrows. It's just a matter of changing a plus sign to a minus sign. Change this part:

\edef\MyList{#4}% Allows for #3 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Down arrows
        \draw [<-] (0,\X+0.1) -- (0,\X);

to

\edef\MyList{#4}% Allows for #3 to be both a macro or not
    \foreach \X in \MyList {% Down arrows
        \draw [<-] (0,\X-0.1) -- (0,\X);
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