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So, I'm learning about Latex, I've read the entire TeX and LaTeX wikipedia pages, trying to understand what is this all about. Already installed TexWorks and MikTex in my windows. I know how to create PDF articles with nice math notation, and beamer presentations, but in essence I don't really know what I'm doing. I know that TexWorks isn't really necessary, I could use only the MikTex.
What I want to know is: what's the difference of TeX and LaTex, and what's the really minimum setup that I could use to just display a simple math equation. I don't really need complicated editors, it could be just via command line. I'm asking this because I want to understand the inner working of TeX or LaTex so I can develop something that I'm thinking would be nice. So, I'm here to learn.
I don't know where or what type of program I'm running on my computer, who or what compiles the .tex file, and how my article is transformed to PDF. I'm really lost. I appreciate any kind of help. I'm tired of installing programs and lots of packages without knowing what they do, so I would really love to learn about the LaTeX inner workings.