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How can I replace the original matrix [L] which is of normal size with a huge one, like this figure shows (the red result is what I want):

enter image description here

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4 Answers 4

up vote 11 down vote accepted

One option:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}

\begin{document}

\[
\begin{bmatrix}
\delta_{1} \\
\delta_{2} \\
\vdots \\
\delta_{M} \\
\end{bmatrix} =
\begin{bmatrix}
\qquad\qquad \\
\\
\raisebox{0pt}[0pt][0pt]{\Huge $L$} \\
\\
\end{bmatrix}_{M\times M}
\begin{bmatrix}
v_{1} \\
v_{2} \\
\vdots \\
v_{M} \\
\end{bmatrix}
\]

\end{document}

enter image description here

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Thanks, @Gonzalo Medina ! –  C. Wang May 4 at 16:00
    
@C.Wang I've improved the answer in my edit. –  Gonzalo Medina May 4 at 16:16
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Concisely, with stacks.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{stackengine}
\stackMath
\setstackgap{L}{1.3\baselineskip}
\begin{document}
\savestack{\tmp}{\Huge $L$}
\begin{equation}
\left[\addstackgap{\Centerstack{\delta_1 \delta_2 {\vdots} \delta_M}}\right]
=
\left[\addstackgap[2.5\baselineskip]{\smash{~~~~~~\raisebox{-.3\ht\tmpcontent}{\tmp}~~~~~~}}\right]_{M\times M}
\left[\addstackgap{\Centerstack{v_1 v_2 {\vdots} v_M}}\right]
\end{equation}
\end{document}

enter image description here

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This way?

    \documentclass{article}

    \usepackage[showframe, nomarginpar, textwidth = 16cm]{geometry}
    \usepackage{mathtools}
    \usepackage{graphics}

    \begin{document}

    \[
    \begin{bmatrix}
    δ_1\\δ_{2} \\ \vdots \\ δ_M
    \end{bmatrix} = 
    \begin{bmatrix}
     \vphantom{\begin{matrix} δ_1 &   & δ_M \\δ_{2} \\ \vdots \\ δ_M \end{matrix}}\scalebox{2.5}{\enspace$ L $\enspace}
    \end{bmatrix}_{M× M}
    \begin{bmatrix}
    v_1\\v_{2} \\ \vdots \\ v_M
    \end{bmatrix} ,
    \]

    \end{document} 

enter image description here

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If you want the same size of the brackets, use a \vphantom:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}

\begin{document}

\[
\begin{bmatrix}
\delta_{1} \\
\delta_{2} \\
\vdots \\
\delta_{M} \\
\end{bmatrix} =
\left[
\vphantom{%
  \begin{matrix}
  v_{1} \\
  v_{2} \\
  \vdots \\
  v_{M} \\
  \end{matrix}%
}
\quad\begin{gathered}\text{\Huge $L$}\end{gathered}\quad
\right]_{M\times M}
\begin{bmatrix}
v_{1} \\
v_{2} \\
\vdots \\
v_{M} \\
\end{bmatrix}
\]

\end{document}

enter image description here

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1  
Out of curiosity (and excuse my ignorance), but why do you switch to text mode before issuing \Huge, only to re-enter math mode with $L$? –  Sean Allred May 4 at 16:57
1  
@SeanAllred \Huge in math mode is illegal. –  egreg May 4 at 18:18
    
\includegraphics{simpler-than-expected} –  Sean Allred May 4 at 18:23
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