# How does one type Chinese in LaTeX?

Can anyone describe how one can type Chinese in LaTeX? When I compile this:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
你好吗？
\end{document}


the resulting document shows nothing. For reference my IME is iBus 1.3.9 on Fedora 13.

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The other questions tagged {cjk} could be of interest. –  Caramdir May 6 '11 at 19:54

Just a note for my specific use case: I wanted to use a few Chinese characters in my .bib file (using biber) as Unicode; to compile them like that, I could successfully use package {ctex} - unfortunately, it breaks some of my formatting in the document class I otherwise use. It turns out, the package {CJKutf8} doesn't break for me - but unlike {ctex}, it cannot read unicode chars directly - we have to wrap them in an environment, which is inconvenient to me for a .bib file.

So, since I have only few, I decided to declare unicode characters manually, to use {CJKutf8} to "render" the glyph. Say I want to render only "文章" from the examples above - so first I look up the unicode sequence for them , using my utfinfo.pl:

$echo 文章 | perl utfinfo.pl Got 2 uchars Char: '文' u: 25991 [0x6587] b: 230,150,135 [0xE6,0x96,0x87] n: CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH 6587 [CJK Unified Ideographs] Char: '章' u: 31456 [0x7AE0] b: 231,171,160 [0xE7,0xAB,0xA0] n: CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH 7AE0 [CJK Unified Ideographs]  knowing that, a working MWE (and compilable with pdflatex test.tex) could be constructed using the guidelines in [Cjk mailing list] Problem with CJKchar: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{CJKutf8} % NOTE: this may require the font simsun.ttc in the same directory as this .tex file! % [http://lists.ffii.org/pipermail/cjk/2007-November/002045.html [Cjk] Problem with CJKchar] \newcommand{\Chi}[2]{% \csname CJK*\endcsname{UTF8}{zhsong}% \CJKchar{#1}{#2}% \csname endCJK*\endcsname } % 文: 0x6587 % \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{6587}{\begin{CJK*}{UTF8}{zhsong}文\end{CJK*}} % nope % \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{6587}{\CJKfamily{zhsong}文} % % nope % \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{6587}{\CJKchar[UTF8]{"65}{"87}} % nope % \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{6587}{\Unicode{"65}{"87}} % % cant use \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{6587}{\Chi{"65}{"87}} % YES! % 章: 0x7AE0 \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{7AE0}{\Chi{"7A}{"E0}} % \AtBeginDvi{\input{zhwinfonts}} % MUST have! for \usepackage{CJKutf8} \begin{document} % macro test: \Chi{"65}{"87}\Chi{"7A}{"E0} % ok % direct unicode chars: 文章 % ok \end{document}  EDIT: also note in the actual doc with bibliography, I had to have at least one \Chi{... in the main body of document, else the bibliography part crashed; putting it in \phantom doesn't work, and I don't like inserting spurious characters in my doc. It turns out, instead of a \Chi, one can "start up" the CJKutf8 environment "manually", like so: \makeatletter \let\CJK@ignorespaces\relax % else the below breaks.. \CJK@envStart{}{UTF8}{zhsong} \makeatother \printbibliography  - For ConTeXt users, this is simple. First, use \mainlanguage[cn] and \setscript[hanzi] in the preamble to set the default language to Chinese. If you want only certain parts of the document to use Chinese, you can use \language[cn]{你好} within the document. If you want to place a little bit of English in the document, use \language[en]{hello} to ensure that the hyphenations appear correctly. Next, the default fonts usually do not have Chinese characters, so you will need to create a typescript with Chinese fonts, then use \setupbodyfont to select that font. For details, see Getting started with Chinese in ConTeXt. - I recently ran into this on Fedora 16. You're seeing nothing due to not selecting the correct Chinese font, which is different on Windows, Mac and Linux. The trick to finding the right font for a language on Linux is: $ fc-list :lang=zh


the default Chinese font on Fedora 16 is:

WenQuanYi Zen Hei,文泉驛正黑,文泉驿正黑:style=Regular


and on your Fedora 13 system it's likely to be:

AR PL UMing TW:style=Light
AR PL UMing CN:style=Light


(I'm from Taiwan so I use the Traditional Chinese variant ending in TW. You want "AR PL UMing CN" for simplified Chinese.) To install Chinese fonts etc on Fedora, run:

yum groupinstall 'Chinese Support'


\documentclass{article}
\setromanfont{AR PL UMing CN}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


and you should start seeing Chinese.

The above snippet was to help you diagnose the Chinese font problem. For real work I second the recommendation for the xeCJK package. My personal setup is documented here.

The inability to typeset the same Chinese, Japanese etc LaTeX source across Windows, Mac and Linux due to them having different fonts is a real pain but is not specific to XeTex. It's painful when using latex + dvipdfmx or pdflatex as well.

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The easiest way is (for Simplified Chinese document only):

% UTF-8 encoding
% Compile with latex+dvipdfmx, pdflatex or xelatex
% XeLaTeX is recommanded
% Some Chinese fonts should be installed in your system (SimSun, SimHei, FangSong, KaiTi)
\documentclass[UTF8]{ctexart}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


It is designed for Chinese typesetting. Font sizes, indentation, name translation, line spacing, ... everything is set.

There might be some problems on Linux with default font setting (for windows). Then you can define the fonts mannually using xeCJK:

\documentclass[UTF8,nofonts]{ctexart}
\setCJKmainfont{SimSun} % or any font you have.
\setCJKsansfont{SimHei}
\setCJKmonofont{FangSong}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


If you just want to typeset only a few Chinese charecter, you can use CJK with pdfLaTeX or xeCJK with XeLaTeX.

% Compile with xelatex
% UTF-8 encoding
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xeCJK}
\setCJKmainfont{SimSun}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


or

% UTF-8 encoding, pdflatex or latex+dvipdfmx
% Simplified Chinese fonts should be installed
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\AtBeginDvi{\input{zhwinfonts}}
\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{UTF8}{zhsong}

\clearpage\end{CJK*}
\end{document}


or

% UTF-8 encoding
% latex+dvips, latex+dvipdfm(x) or pdflatex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{UTF8}{gbsn}

\clearpage\end{CJK*}
\end{document}

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Note: I am one of the developers of ctex bundle and xeCJK. –  Leo Liu May 7 '11 at 3:06
I am lucky to find your answer. Thank you very much for the examples! I tried the second example on TeXnicCenter with MikTeX 2.9, it works great with all of the other packages I have been using. I do have two more questions: 1. I can only change fonts to {UTF8}{zhsong},{UTF8}{zhhei},{UTF8}{zhkai} and {UTF8}{zhfs}, but how do I use zhli or zhiyou? 2. Is there a way I can use WinEdt, which still does not support UTF yet? –  ltxsun Jan 22 '12 at 5:26
@ltxsun: I make a mistake, zhli and zhyou are in zhmetrics bundle. Please don't leave more comments here. You may ask a new question for that. And I think it is much better to ask at bbs.ctex.org for pure chinese questions. –  Leo Liu Feb 4 '12 at 7:59
Great. I am using xeCJK now. But there is an indentation of paragraphs at the beginning of a section. I tried to read the manual but it is in chinese. I found an option, but this option does not seem to do the trick. –  Stefan Müller Feb 16 '13 at 9:03
@StefanMüller: indentfirst=false would fix this. I'm sorry but my English is poor and I don't have much time to translate the manual now. –  Leo Liu Feb 20 '13 at 14:00

I use Chinese under XeLaTeX and the XeCJK package, which allow the use of CJK together with your own fonts. It's extremely convenient.

First, take a look at the explanation at Chou Pai-hsiang's website. This should get you started.

There are other important comments here on tex.SE about the use of fontspec and getting the full Chinese character set from two or more fonts, but you can worry about those matters later.

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