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Are there any advice which one is more preferable:

The temperature is $5$ degrees Celsius.

or

The temperature is 5 degrees Celsius.

Here, I don't want to use siunitx or anything similar to typeset the degree symbol.

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If it's just informative, or part of the text, without dollars. If it's part of a problem, or with some calculation involved, then math. That's my point of view. –  Manuel Jun 25 at 12:24
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Duplicate tex.stackexchange.com/q/185193/3929 –  daleif Jun 25 at 12:25
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IMHO, documents should use the same font for math numbers as for textual numbers, so you shouldn't see any difference in the output. Packages like {times} violate this, so $5$ would be in Computer Modern, and 5 would be in Times -- ugh! So, I think it's just up to your personal choice here. –  John Wickerson Jun 25 at 12:25
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@JohnWickerson What if you want to use old style figures? –  Manuel Jun 25 at 12:27

1 Answer 1

up vote 5 down vote accepted

You should write numbers that are "equations" (not "text") as equations, i.e., in \(...\) ($...$ is a semi-deprecated way of writing inline equations; I don't use it because it is too easy to mess up opening-closing with it). This because the text font might render digits very differently than the math font does. Most font combinations don't, so visually the effect is probably hard to notice most of the time.

Then the question becomes when a number is text and when it is math. If you reference, say, "chapter 15" it is clearly text, in your case (a temperature, or in general a value of some kind) I'd argue it it math.

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