# Natbib change author separation to '&'

I'm using natbib, german babel and natbib creates output of the form Foo and Bar (1337)

I would like to get Foo & Bar (1337) for citet and (Foo & Bar 1337) respectively for citep.

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What `\bibliographystyle` do you use? –  lockstep Jun 3 '11 at 21:44
Hey, im using chicago atm. Anyhow, since I additionally need to have small caps (stupid prof!), I'm looking for that, additionally, anyways... looks like siam and acm dont work with natbib, you got any advice? Thanks –  Saman Jun 3 '11 at 22:27
Can someone please correct the spelling for the word "separation" on the title? –  Vivi Jun 3 '11 at 22:29
@Vivi: Spelling corrected. –  lockstep Jun 3 '11 at 22:36

Assuming you're using `\bibliographstyle{plainnat}`, put a copy of `plainnat.bst` in your working folder and rename it to `myplainnat.bst` (later, this file should go to the appropriate location in your local TEXMF folder). In this copy, look for `FUNCTION {format.lab.names}` and specifically for `" and "`. Replace the latter with `" \& "` and save your modified copy. Compile your `.tex` file with `\bibliographstyle{myplainnat}`. The expression "and" in citations (but not in the bibliography) should now be replaced with "&".

If you want "&" also as separator in the bibliography, replace every instance of `" and "` in `plainnat` (there should be three of them) with `" \& "`.

EDIT: At least with regard to citations, it works the same way with `chicago.bst`. I don't know how to get small caps with `natbib`, though. My advice would be to switch to biblatex -- see this question for details.

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look also for bbl.and as indicator, which might be used in multi languages styles –  Dukeatcoding May 21 '13 at 18:57

One option I have used previously is `\renewcommand{\betweenauthors}{&}` -- however it appears not to work with standard .bst files such as `apalike.bst`.

An alternative is to use the `custom-bib` package to generate your own `.bst` file - it does have an explicit option (AMPERSAND) that lets you choose between an `and` and an `&` in your list of authors.

Using `custom-bib` is as easy as running `latex makebst.tex` (e.g. `latex /usr/local/texlive/2010/texmf-dist/tex/latex/custom-bib/makebst.tex` for my installation) and following the prompts.

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Doesn't seem to work with `plainnat.bst` or `chicago.bst`. –  lockstep Jun 4 '11 at 9:37
@lockstep Oupps, doesn't work with `apalike.bst` either; seems I used it in conjunction with a `.bst` file generated using custom-bib; have edited my answer accordingly –  prettygully Jun 6 '11 at 3:13
I second the use of `custom-bib`. –  Michael Ummels Jun 6 '11 at 8:57