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I used the right environment + commands but I don't understand why my "1." the top of the diagram and the first line of the equation don't line up. Whatever else follows doesn't have to be aligned but those three things should align properly.

\documentclass[fleqn]{article}
\usepackage{fullpage}
\usepackage[left=1in,right=1in,top=1in,bottom=1in]{geometry}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{wrapfig}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage[makeroom]{cancel}
\pagestyle{empty}
\begin{document}
\begin{enumerate}
\item
\includegraphics{Diagram.pdf}
\begin{minipage}[t]{2in}
$\begin{aligned}[t]
v&=\cfrac{2\pi d}{T} \\
v&=\cfrac{2\pi r\cos\theta}{T} \\
v&=\cfrac{2\pi(\text{6.37\e{6} m})\cos\text{(40.1)}}{\text{86,400 s}} \\
v&=\text{354.34 m/s} \\
\end{aligned}$
\end{minipage}
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}
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1  
I am not sure I fully understand the problem, as I don't have "Diagran.pdf" and the definition of \e. But I have a feeling that this question might be related to this question about alignment of item number in list containing a minipage –  Peter Grill Jun 6 '11 at 6:13
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2 Answers

You should realize that \includegraphics inserts the picture as having its baseline in common with the baseline of the line where it's inserted.

Probably the following can help you.

\item
\raisebox{2ex}{\parbox{2in}[t]{
  \null % to fool TeX
  \includegraphics[width=2in]{Diagram}
  }}
\begin{minipage}[t]{2in}
...
\end{minipage}

The \null in the \parbox makes that point as the reference point for top alignment; but it has zero height, so we need to raise a bit that \parbox.

Adjust the dimensions to suit your needs.

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\raisebox can be used with \height, for setting the baseline right at the top resp. raising the diagram by its height:

\raisebox{-\height}{\includegraphics{Diagram.pdf}}

This way it would align with the base line of the other elements, such as 1. You could raise it additionally, for top alignment, by the height of 1. The calc package is handy here:

\usepackage{calc}
\newlength{\first}
...
\item \settoheight{\first}{\labelenumi}
  \raisebox{\first-\height}{\includegraphics{Diagram.pdf}}

A complete example with your code and also the minipage raised shows nice alignment:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\newcommand*{\e}[1]{\ensuremath{\times 10^{#1}}}
\usepackage{calc}
\newlength{\first}
\begin{document}
\begin{enumerate}
  \item \settoheight{\first}{\labelenumi}
    \raisebox{\first-\height}{\includegraphics{Diagram.pdf}}
    \raisebox{-.5\height}{%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{2in}
      $\begin{aligned}[t]
      v&=\cfrac{2\pi d}{T} \\
      v&=\cfrac{2\pi r\cos\theta}{T} \\
      v&=\cfrac{2\pi(\text{6.37\e{6} m})\cos\text{(40.1)}}{\text{86,400 s}} \\
      v&=\text{354.34 m/s} \\
      \end{aligned}$
    \end{minipage}}
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}

enter image description here

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