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I want to typeset a paper so that the text is in Arabic and the equations are in Latin (I mean, the equations as usual, you know what I mean). How can I do that?

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First, you will probably need to use XeTeX for that (to get proper arabic support). See for example tug.org/pipermail/xetex/2004-July/000533.html. – ℝaphink Jun 10 '11 at 11:24
And how did all the people used arabic without xetex? – Herbert Jun 10 '11 at 11:36
Please take a look at this answer: Typesetting a document using Arabic script (Ignore the question, though.) – Alan Munn Jun 10 '11 at 12:16
@Herbert The fact the people were able to deal with Arabic in the past without using XeLaTeX doesn't mean that now XeLaTeX isn't the preferred solution (which it is.) – Alan Munn Jun 10 '11 at 12:18
@Herbert: say, need was probably a strong term, but it's still recommended to use XeTeX for that. – ℝaphink Jun 10 '11 at 12:25

Since we now have two answers promoting ArabTeX, I find it necessary to add as an answer an explicit link to a solution using XeLaTeX:

Typesetting a document using Arabic script

This is an excellent answer, and using XeLaTeX to be preferred to using ArabTeX. The latter is mainly designed for people who need to input Arabic without access to an Arabic keyboard layout. If you are typing Arabic text directly, you really should be using XeLaTeX. With the help of the bidi package, you also get full support for both RTL and LTR languages.

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As Herbert mentioned you need arabtex, here is a minimal. You just type the equation as normal and you need to use transliterated text.

\null \vskip -2cm
a b c d e f g h  \\
donald knuth pasha\\
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I suppose you have installed the package ARfonts and arabtex. Then it should be possible to use \textLR{... your equation ... }

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