# Headings inside the bibliography list?

Is it possible to have headings inside thebibliography? I need to categorize the references into, say, "required" and "optional".

I tried simply putting some text in between \bibitems, but the compiler complains about encountering text not part of a \bibitem.

A solution not involving BibTeX is preferred for now, I'm still learning LaTeX and for the paper I'm writing I only have a handful of references (and not that much time, surprise-surprise :-). I plan to learn BibTeX in the future, of course.

Just before posting I looked at How do I break up a bibliography into separately numbered sections? and one of the answers was mentioning multibib which appears to have such functionality. I'll ask anyway in case there are other solutions, I just need some extra text displayed, not to really break the bibliography into subbibliographies.

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As you don't like to use BibTeX, here's a solution simply using the standard bibliography environment.

You could use the \item command to insert headings or text into a bibliography, for example:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\begin{thebibliography}{KnuthXX}
\item[]\hspace{-\labelwidth}\hspace{-\labelsep}\textbf{Required}:
\bibitem[Knuth86]{DK86} D.E. Knuth,
The TeXbook, 1986
\item[]\hspace{-\labelwidth}\hspace{-\labelsep}\textbf{Optional}:
\bibitem[Knuth89]{DK89} D.E. Knuth,
Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, 1989
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}


Or use two bibliography environments:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\renewcommand{\refname}{Required}
\begin{thebibliography}{KnuthXX}
\bibitem[Knuth86]{DK86} D.E. Knuth,
The TeXbook, 1986
\end{thebibliography}
\renewcommand{\refname}{Optional}
\begin{thebibliography}{KnuthXX}
\bibitem[Knuth89]{DK89} D.E. Knuth,
Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, 1989
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}


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Great, thanks Stefan! –  wishihadabettername Sep 5 '10 at 12:53
I have the same problem, and want to add text between the bibliography title, and the first bibitem. I tried the solution with the \item command. It works for headlines, but not for several paragraphs of text, since the layout is messed up. How can I correct that? (I use the AMSbook class) –  Britzel Sep 7 '12 at 12:53
@Britzel Welcome to TeX.sx! Your question won't be seen by many people here, so it would be best to repost it as a fresh question. Follow-up questions like this are more than welcome! Please use the "Ask Question" link for your new question; there you can link to this question to provide the background. –  Joseph Wright Sep 8 '12 at 6:02
I have several categories of references in my CV. I used bibunits and I'm pretty happy with how that came out. I've never tried writing a bibliography by hand though, so I have no idea how much trouble that would be. I highly recommend learning BibTeX. It won't take very long at all, especially if you have a sample to look at.
Another possibility is multibib; I'm using it in my CV. –  Jukka Suomela Sep 5 '10 at 23:01