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Upon typing latex -help, you can get a list of all command line arguments. AFAIK, none of these are mentioned in the original TeX/LaTeX books. So, I wonder how these were born, and more importantly, how they can evolve.

For example, it might be useful to add a flag to change width for logging messages to unlimited, or disable messages regarding file inclusions, and perhaps other ideas.

Should anyone be interested, here is the output I get on my machine:

Usage: pdftex [OPTION]... [TEXNAME[.tex]] [COMMANDS]
   or: pdftex [OPTION]... \FIRST-LINE
   or: pdftex [OPTION]... &FMT ARGS
  Run pdfTeX on TEXNAME, usually creating TEXNAME.pdf.
  Any remaining COMMANDS are processed as pdfTeX input, after TEXNAME is read.
  If the first line of TEXNAME is %&FMT, and FMT is an existing .fmt file,
  use it.  Else use `NAME.fmt', where NAME is the program invocation name,
  most commonly `pdftex'.

  Alternatively, if the first non-option argument begins with a backslash,
  interpret all non-option arguments as a line of pdfTeX input.

  Alternatively, if the first non-option argument begins with a &, the
  next word is taken as the FMT to read, overriding all else.  Any
  remaining arguments are processed as above.

  If no arguments or options are specified, prompt for input.

-draftmode              switch on draft mode (generates no output PDF)
-enc                    enable encTeX extensions such as \mubyte
-etex                   enable e-TeX extensions
[-no]-file-line-error   disable/enable file:line:error style messages
-fmt=FMTNAME            use FMTNAME instead of program name or a %& line
-halt-on-error          stop processing at the first error
-ini                    be pdfinitex, for dumping formats; this is implicitly
                          true if the program name is `pdfinitex'
-interaction=STRING     set interaction mode (STRING=batchmode/nonstopmode/
                          scrollmode/errorstopmode)
-ipc                    send DVI output to a socket as well as the usual
                          output file
-ipc-start              as -ipc, and also start the server at the other end
-jobname=STRING         set the job name to STRING
-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER  set path searching debugging flags according to
                          the bits of NUMBER
[-no]-mktex=FMT         disable/enable mktexFMT generation (FMT=tex/tfm/pk)
-mltex                  enable MLTeX extensions such as \charsubdef
-output-comment=STRING  use STRING for DVI file comment instead of date
                          (no effect for PDF)
-output-directory=DIR   use existing DIR as the directory to write files in
-output-format=FORMAT   use FORMAT for job output; FORMAT is `dvi' or `pdf'
[-no]-parse-first-line  disable/enable parsing of first line of input file
-progname=STRING        set program (and fmt) name to STRING
-recorder               enable filename recorder
[-no]-shell-escape      disable/enable \write18{SHELL COMMAND}
-shell-restricted       enable restricted \write18
-src-specials           insert source specials into the DVI file
-src-specials=WHERE     insert source specials in certain places of
                          the DVI file. WHERE is a comma-separated value
                          list: cr display hbox math par parend vbox
-synctex=NUMBER         generate SyncTeX data for previewers if nonzero
-translate-file=TCXNAME use the TCX file TCXNAME
-8bit                   make all characters printable by default
-help                   display this help and exit
-version                output version information and exit

Email bug reports to pdftex@tug.org.
share|improve this question

The command line options are in the web2c implementation derived from unix tex, specifically

 /source/texk/web2c/lib/texmfmp.c

which starts

/* texmfmp.c: Hand-coded routines for TeX or Metafont in C.  Originally
   written by Tim Morgan, drawing from other Unix ports of TeX.  This is
   a collection of miscellany, everything that's easier (or only
   possible) to do in C.

   This file is public domain.  */

/* This file is included from, e.g., texextra,c after
      #define EXTERN
      #include <texd.h>
   to instantiate data from texd.h here.  The ?d.h file is what
   #defines TeX or MF, which avoids the need for a special
   Makefile rule.  */

the individual options have evolved over time mostly I suppose under Karl Berry's stewardship of the texlive effort.

Note the particular feature of the width for logging messages is configurable in the texmf.cnf file rather than a commandline switch.

share|improve this answer
    
Thanks. Any insights re future evolution? – Yossi Gil Jan 30 at 13:38
    
@YossiGil not really, the commandline just interfaces to features that are there, the actual features have been added by different people at different times over the last 30 years or so. If new features get added they may trigger new commandline options being added similarly some may be dropped or ignored in tex variants such as luatex where they don't all make sense. – David Carlisle Jan 30 at 14:38

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