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When using old-style figures, what are the special cases of using lining figures (if any), apart from maths?

For instance, are reference marks one such instance?

Some 1998 text which references~[1]

where the 1998 would be in old-style, should the [1] be in lining-style? i.e.,

Some 1998 text which references~$[1]$

Same with equation number marks? How about percents?

In 1989, there was 25\%


In 1989, there was $25$\%

(side question, should there be a \thinspace or something between the percent-sign and the numbers?)

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up vote 5 down vote accepted

From Bringhurst, 3.2.1:

Use titling [lining] figures with full caps, and text [oldstyle] figures in all other circumstances

Some may find that a bit dogmatic, but I think, at least, that it's a good starting-point.

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In tex.stackexchange.com/questions/8204/… I thought they did not look nice in Tables, but later changed my mind tex.stackexchange.com/questions/12150/…;. – Yiannis Lazarides Oct 13 '11 at 19:29

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