I want many times to ask questions but I don't know what to call those. Are they called tags? Commands? Formatters?
I know my question is general but that's what the question is for. To get out of generality.
In LaTeX text formatting is done with a macro, also sometimes referred to as a command. These are really just shorthands for a more complicated sequence of commands, and are useful as they are easier to remember, and also help to separate content from formatting.
You can define you own macros via
So, in the case of your example:
then the above command would produce:
Update: As @Werner/@Martin correctly points out the more formal terminology is control sequence, or primitive for the case where these are defined in the TeX, but in asking questions here either should be fine.