Take the 2-minute tour ×
TeX - LaTeX Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of TeX, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and related typesetting systems. It's 100% free, no registration required.

My question is related to the vertical spacing of the objects in the page. I think that in my case TikZ can influence it. Here the MWE:

\documentclass[12pt,letterpaper]{book}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{multicol}
\usepackage{pgf,tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{arrows}

\textheight= 21cm
\textwidth= 14cm
\topmargin=-1cm
\parindent=0cm
\oddsidemargin=1.26cm
\evensidemargin=1.26cm

\begin{document}
\paragraph*{Nice paragraph}

This is some text in the par

\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(30,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,6);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=0:30,line cap=round,line join=round] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\caption{}\label{fig:funcionRaizCuadradada}

\end{figure}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{small}
\begin{itemize}
\centering
\item[] text una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\sqrt{x+1}$};
    \draw[<->] (-3,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,4);
    \draw[domain=-1:4.7] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x+1)});
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] More Text tres unidades hacia arriba, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,6) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+3=\sqrt{x}+3$};
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,5);
    \draw[domain=0:4] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x)+3});
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Some text de $y=\sqrt{x}$, con respecto al eje $y$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,3) node[above] {\small $y=\sqrt{-x}$};
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(1,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,2);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=-5:0] plot(\x,{sqrt(-\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}

\columnbreak
\item[] Translation dos unidades hacia la derecha, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=f(x-2)=\sqrt{x-2}$};
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,3);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=2:5] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x-2)});
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Reflection de $y=\sqrt{x}$, con respecto al eje $x$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-3)--(0,1);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=0:5] plot(\x,{-sqrt(\x)});
    \draw (0,1) node[above] {\small $y=-\sqrt{x}$};
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Reflection de $y=\sqrt{x+1}$, con respecto al eje $x$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(1,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,3);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=-5.7:-1] plot(\x,{sqrt(-\x-1)});
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=\sqrt{-x-1}$};
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{itemize}
\end{small}
\end{multicols}

\newpage
\paragraph*{Bad paragraph}

There exist som text to put here\enlargethispage*{20cm}

\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \clip (-6,-6) rectangle (6,6);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/\x});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\caption{}\label{fig:funcionRacional}
\end{figure}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{small}
\begin{itemize}
\centering
\item[] Traslation una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\dfrac{1}{x+1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/(\x+1)});
    \draw[dotted] (-1,-5)--(-1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia arriba, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}+\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/\x)+1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,1.5)--(5,1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Reflection de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=-\dfrac{1}{x}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{-(1/\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}

\columnbreak    
\item[] Traslation una unidad hacia la derecha, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above] {\small $y=\dfrac{1}{x-1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/((\x)-1)});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia abajo, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/(\x))-1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,-1.5)--(5,-1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}

\item[] Traslation horizontal y vertical, elongation de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(3/((\x)-2))+1});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{itemize}
\end{small}
\end{multicols}\pagebreak
\end{document}

The first page looks like this:

enter image description here

It is that I want. But the next pages looks like:

enter image description here

it is an unpleasant result. That I want is two columns each of them with three images in the same page of the Figure 2. In order to do this I have tried \enlargethispage* but it don't works, as you can see there is a lot of wasted vertical space. The only difference between the first page and the next, is that in the second one I use \clip command in the plots. I suspect that this causes the vertical space can not be stretched. How can I do it better?

share|improve this question
3  
Please, provide a complete MWE, i.e., from \documentclass to \end{document}. This way nobody need to guess your preamble with all packages and macros. In any case, you can distribute your figures with a two columns tabular instead of using multicols. –  Ignasi Nov 9 '11 at 8:33
    
I second tabular. This way you can get around some flow problems. –  qubyte Nov 9 '11 at 15:36
    
Thanks @Ignasi I'll correct it. –  leo Nov 9 '11 at 19:40
    
Yes, I'll correct it in a moment. Thanks –  leo Nov 10 '11 at 0:20
    
The problem is not that you used clip on your second page, but instead that the topmost picture is simply slightly taller than the one on your first page. If you use \clip (-5,-4) rectangle (5,5); in that picture, everything will snap back into place, even without using enlargethispage. –  Jake Nov 10 '11 at 2:02
add comment

2 Answers

up vote 3 down vote accepted

One way that produces better results is to place each figure in a minipage (and the associated text). This will keep the text and the figure from separating across columns:

enter image description here

Here is the complete code:

\documentclass[12pt,letterpaper]{book}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{multicol}
\usepackage{pgf,tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{arrows}

\textheight= 21cm
\textwidth= 14cm
\topmargin=-1cm
\parindent=0cm
\oddsidemargin=1.26cm
\evensidemargin=1.26cm

\begin{document}
\paragraph*{Nice paragraph}

This is some text in the par

\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(30,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,6);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=0:30,line cap=round,line join=round] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\caption{}\label{fig:funcionRaizCuadradada}
\end{figure}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{small}
\begin{itemize}
%\centering
\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}\raggedright
text una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\sqrt{x+1}$};
    \draw[<->] (-3,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,4);
    \draw[domain=-1:4.7,red] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x+1)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
More Text tres unidades hacia arriba, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,6) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+3=\sqrt{x}+3$};
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,5);
    \draw[domain=0:4] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x)+3});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Some text de $y=\sqrt{x}$, con respecto al eje $y$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,3) node[above] {\small $y=\sqrt{-x}$};
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(1,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,2);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=-5:0] plot(\x,{sqrt(-\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\columnbreak
\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Translation dos unidades hacia la derecha, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=f(x-2)=\sqrt{x-2}$};
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,3);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=2:5] plot(\x,{sqrt(\x-2)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Reflection de $y=\sqrt{x}$, con respecto al eje $x$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw[<->] (-1,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-3)--(0,1);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=0:5] plot(\x,{-sqrt(\x)});
    \draw (0,1) node[above] {\small $y=-\sqrt{x}$};
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Reflection de $y=\sqrt{x+1}$, con respecto al eje $x$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=5mm,y=5mm]
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(1,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-1)--(0,3);
    \draw[samples=100,domain=-5.7:-1] plot(\x,{sqrt(-\x-1)});
    \draw (0,4) node[above]{\small $y=\sqrt{-x-1}$};
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}
\end{itemize}
\end{small}
\end{multicols}

\newpage
\paragraph*{Bad paragraph}

There exist som text to put here\enlargethispage*{20cm}

\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \clip (-6,-6) rectangle (6,6);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/\x});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\caption{}\label{fig:funcionRacional}
\end{figure}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{small}
\begin{itemize}
\centering
\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Traslation una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\dfrac{1}{x+1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100,blue] plot(\x,{1/(\x+1)});
    \draw[dotted] (-1,-5)--(-1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia arriba, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}+\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100,green] plot(\x,{(1/\x)+1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,1.5)--(5,1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Reflection de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=-\dfrac{1}{x}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100,orange] plot(\x,{-(1/\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\columnbreak    
\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Traslation una unidad hacia la derecha, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above] {\small $y=\dfrac{1}{x-1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100,cyan] plot(\x,{1/((\x)-1)});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[] 
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia abajo, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100,violet] plot(\x,{(1/(\x))-1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,-1.5)--(5,-1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}

\item[]
\begin{minipage}{\linewidth}
Traslation horizontal y vertical, elongation de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,

    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(3/((\x)-2))+1});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{minipage}
\end{itemize}
\end{small}
\end{multicols}\pagebreak
\end{document}
share|improve this answer
    
Thanks Peter Grill –  leo Nov 10 '11 at 4:46
add comment

Since you want to keep all the seven figures together, I recommend using one minipage (page breaks are not allowed inside minipages) for the seven elements; the six figures can be placed using six inner minipages; in this way, you don't have to use a multicols environment nor a list:

\documentclass[12pt,letterpaper]{book}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{pgf,tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{arrows}

\textheight= 21cm
\textwidth= 14cm
\topmargin=-1cm
\parindent=0cm
\oddsidemargin=1.26cm
\evensidemargin=1.26cm

\begin{document}

\noindent
\begin{minipage}{\textwidth}
There exist some text to put here

{   \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \clip (-6,-6) rectangle (6,6);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/\x});
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \captionof{figure}{}
  \label{fig:funcionRacional}
}

  \begin{minipage}[t]{.45\textwidth}
    \raggedright
    Traslation una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,\par
    \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\dfrac{1}{x+1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/(\x+1)});
    \draw[dotted] (-1,-5)--(-1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}\hfill
  \begin{minipage}[t]{.45\textwidth}
  \raggedright
  Traslation una unidad hacia la derecha, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above] {\small $y=\dfrac{1}{x-1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/((\x)-1)});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}\\[2ex]
  \begin{minipage}[t]{.45\textwidth}
  \raggedright
  Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia arriba, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}+\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/\x)+1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,1.5)--(5,1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}\hfill
  \begin{minipage}[t]{.45\textwidth}
  \raggedright
  Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia abajo, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/(\x))-1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,-1.5)--(5,-1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}\\[2ex]
  \begin{minipage}[b]{.45\textwidth}
      \raggedright
  Reflection de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=-\dfrac{1}{x}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{-(1/\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}\hfill
  \begin{minipage}[b]{.45\textwidth}
  \raggedright
  Traslation horizontal y vertical, elongation de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(3/((\x)-2))+1});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \end{minipage}
\end{minipage}

\end{document}

enter image description here

Another, perhaps simpler, option would be to use one tabular environment for the seven elements (tabular also doesn't admit page breaks); the caption for the figure was obtained with \captionof provided by the caption package. Using this approach, again, there's no need for a multicols environment nor a list:

\documentclass[12pt,letterpaper]{book}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{caption}
\usepackage{pgf,tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{arrows}

\textheight= 21cm
\textwidth= 14cm
\topmargin=-1cm
\parindent=0cm
\oddsidemargin=1.26cm
\evensidemargin=1.26cm

\begin{document}

There exist some text to put here

\noindent
\begin{tabular}{%
  @{}>{\small\raggedright\arraybackslash}p{\dimexpr.5\textwidth-\tabcolsep\relax}
  >{\small\raggedright\arraybackslash}p{\dimexpr.5\textwidth-\tabcolsep\relax}@{}}
  \multicolumn{2}{p{\dimexpr\linewidth-2\tabcolsep\relax}}{
    \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \clip (-6,-6) rectangle (6,6);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/\x});
    \end{tikzpicture}
  \captionof{figure}{}
  \label{fig:funcionRacional}
  }\tabularnewline
%
    Traslation una unidad hacia la izquierda, esto es,\par
    \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x+1)=\dfrac{1}{x+1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/(\x+1)});
    \draw[dotted] (-1,-5)--(-1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
&
  Traslation una unidad hacia la derecha, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above] {\small $y=\dfrac{1}{x-1}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{1/((\x)-1)});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture} \tabularnewline
%
  Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia arriba, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)+\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}+\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/\x)+1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,1.5)--(5,1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
&
  Traslation $\frac{3}{2}$ hacia abajo, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(1/(\x))-1.5});
    \draw[dotted] (-5,-1.5)--(5,-1.5);
    \end{tikzpicture}\tabularnewline
%
  Reflection de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=-\dfrac{1}{x}$};
    \clip (-5,-5) rectangle (5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{-(1/\x)});
    \end{tikzpicture}
&
  Traslation horizontal y vertical, elongation de $y=\frac{1}{x}$, esto es,\par
  \centering
    \begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,x=3mm,y=3mm]
    \draw (0,5) node[above]{\small $y=f(x)-\dfrac{3}{2}=\dfrac{1}{x}-\dfrac{3}{2}$};
    \clip (-5,-5)rectangle(5,5);
    \draw[<->] (-5,0)--(5,0);
    \draw[<->] (0,-5)--(0,5);
    \draw[samples=100] plot(\x,{(3/((\x)-2))+1});
    \draw[dotted] (1,-5)--(1,5);
    \end{tikzpicture}
\end{tabular}

\end{document}

As a final recommendation, the changes to the lengths \textheight, \textwidth, etc. are better done with the help of the geometry package.

share|improve this answer
    
Thanks Gonzalo. Just a little question: is a good practice to avoid the use of too many nested environments? Just curiosity. –  leo Nov 10 '11 at 5:21
    
@leo: it depends on the meaning of "too many". Well used, nesting environments is an advantage; think, for example, of the list-like environments, or tabular and minipage. Being able to nest those environments is really useful and, in some cases, required (as in the case of the list-like environments). Of course, abusing nesting might not be good. –  Gonzalo Medina Nov 10 '11 at 12:59
    
uhmm, good to know that. Thanks –  leo Nov 10 '11 at 23:27
add comment

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.