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Is there any standards for when math is supposed to be upright?

E.g.

The f in f(x) is in italics but cos in \cos x is upright. As I see it, both are functions?

\int f(x) \, dx OR \int f(x) \, mathrm{d}x?

P(Y=y) OR \text{P}(Y=y) OR p(Y=y) OR \text{p}(Y=y) for probabilities?

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Some cases are guideline-dependent, for example the 'd' in 'dx' is upright following ISO, but italic following the traditions of pure maths typography. –  Joseph Wright Nov 15 '11 at 10:53
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related question: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/33120/… –  matth Nov 15 '11 at 12:07

1 Answer 1

up vote 8 down vote accepted

Look at the guidelines for mathematical journals for advice. For example, the AMS guidelines and APS guidelines.

In general, anything considered an abbreviation (sin for sine etc.) should be upright. In the case of differentials, it matters what kind a lot.

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