TeX - LaTeX Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of TeX, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and related typesetting systems. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

I'm using a simple bibliography like this


and I would like to either replace the numbers ([1], [2], ...) in front of each reference with some other symbol (e.g. dots) or just remove them altogether.

Any ideas?

Edit: I am using the article class.

share|improve this question
up vote 17 down vote accepted

To change the label, you can redefine \@biblabel; for example, to use a bullet you can say in the preamble:


to suppress the label, use:


this, however, will preserve indentation. To remove this indentation you can redefine the thebibliography environment (which is basically a list); this redefinition depends on the document class used (and you didn't mention this in your question).

Here's an example of such a redefinition for the article document class:


      \@clubpenalty \clubpenalty
       {\@latex@warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%



share|improve this answer
Both work like a charm! Thanks a lot! (I was indeed using article.) – 3lectrologos Nov 19 '11 at 3:12
I am having the same issue but I am using a book document class. Could you help me by providing a working example of how to remove this indentation in this class? I am LATEX enthusiast but not very good at code writing. Regards Rod – Rodrigo Esteves Jun 12 '12 at 23:11
@RodrigoEsteves Welcome to TeX.sx! Your question won't be seen by many people here, so it would be best to repost it as a fresh question. Follow-up questions like this are more than welcome! Please use the "Ask Question" link for your new question; there you can link to this question to provide the background. – Caramdir Jun 12 '12 at 23:13

Your Answer


By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.