\documentclass[12pt,a4paper]{scrartcl}
\usepackage{ngerman}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\title{Rechtevergabe Testdokument}
\author{Test1}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
\newpage
\tableofcontents
\newpage

Gives me no TOC at all (after running pdflatex twice). Moving \addcontentsline to before \tableofcontents and removing \newpage did no change. I intend to obtain a document with TOC only. Thank you.
The \addcontentsline commands are written at \shipout. But your page is empty. Removing the \newpage after \tableofcontents should work (it does for me) or put something on the page with the \addcontentsline commands, e.g. \newpage\mbox{}.