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I am writing notes for my students under the topic of prime factorization and I needed to illustrate the Sieve of Eratosthenes and this is what I came up with in tikz:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=0.65]
\draw[very thick,red] (3,9)--(4,10);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,10)--(4,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,9)--(6,10);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,10)--(6,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,9)--(8,10);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,10)--(8,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,9)--(9,10);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,10)--(9,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,9)--(10,10);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,10)--(10,9);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (1,8)--(2,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,8)--(1,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,8)--(4,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,8)--(3,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,8)--(5,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,8)--(4,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,8)--(6,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,8)--(5,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,8)--(8,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,8)--(7,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,8)--(10,9);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,8)--(9,9);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (0,7)--(1,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,7)--(0,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,7)--(2,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,7)--(1,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,7)--(4,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,7)--(3,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,7)--(5,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,7)--(4,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,7)--(6,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,7)--(5,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,7)--(7,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,7)--(6,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,7)--(8,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,7)--(7,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,7)--(10,8);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,7)--(9,8);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (1,6)--(2,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,6)--(1,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,6)--(3,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,6)--(2,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,6)--(4,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,6)--(3,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,6)--(5,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,6)--(4,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,6)--(6,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,6)--(5,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,6)--(8,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,6)--(7,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,6)--(9,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,6)--(8,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,6)--(10,7);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,6)--(9,7);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (1,5)--(2,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,5)--(1,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,5)--(4,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,5)--(3,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,5)--(5,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,5)--(4,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,5)--(6,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,5)--(5,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,5)--(8,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,5)--(7,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,5)--(9,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,5)--(8,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,5)--(10,6);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,5)--(9,6);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (0,4)--(1,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,4)--(0,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,4)--(2,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,4)--(1,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,4)--(4,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,4)--(3,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,4)--(5,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,4)--(4,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,4)--(6,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,4)--(5,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,4)--(7,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,4)--(6,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,4)--(8,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,4)--(7,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,4)--(10,5);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,4)--(9,5);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (1,3)--(2,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,3)--(1,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,3)--(3,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,3)--(2,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,3)--(4,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,3)--(3,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,3)--(5,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,3)--(4,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,3)--(6,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,3)--(5,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,3)--(8,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,3)--(7,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,3)--(9,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,3)--(8,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,3)--(10,4);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,3)--(9,4);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (1,2)--(2,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,2)--(1,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,2)--(4,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,2)--(3,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,2)--(5,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,2)--(4,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,2)--(6,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,2)--(5,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,2)--(7,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,2)--(6,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,2)--(8,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,2)--(7,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,2)--(10,3);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,2)--(9,3);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (0,1)--(1,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,1)--(0,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,1)--(2,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,1)--(1,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,1)--(4,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,1)--(3,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,1)--(5,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,1)--(4,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,1)--(6,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,1)--(5,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,1)--(7,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,1)--(6,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,1)--(8,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,1)--(7,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,1)--(10,2);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,1)--(9,2);
%------------------------------------
\draw[very thick,red] (0,0)--(1,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,0)--(0,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (1,0)--(2,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,0)--(1,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (2,0)--(3,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,0)--(2,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (3,0)--(4,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,0)--(3,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (4,0)--(5,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,0)--(4,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (5,0)--(6,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (6,0)--(5,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (7,0)--(8,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,0)--(7,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (8,0)--(9,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,0)--(8,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (9,0)--(10,1);
\draw[very thick,red] (10,0)--(9,1);
%------------------------------------
\draw (0,0) grid (10,10);
\draw (0.5,9.5) node {};
\draw (1.5,9.5) node {2};
\draw (2.5,9.5) node {3};
\draw (3.5,9.5) node {4};
\draw (4.5,9.5) node {5};
\draw (5.5,9.5) node {6};
\draw (6.5,9.5) node {7};
\draw (7.5,9.5) node {8};
\draw (8.5,9.5) node {9};
\draw (9.5,9.5) node {10};

%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,8.5) node {11};
\draw (1.5,8.5) node {12};
\draw (2.5,8.5) node {13};
\draw (3.5,8.5) node {14};
\draw (4.5,8.5) node {15};
\draw (5.5,8.5) node {16};
\draw (6.5,8.5) node {17};
\draw (7.5,8.5) node {18};
\draw (8.5,8.5) node {19};
\draw (9.5,8.5) node {20};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,7.5) node {21};
\draw (1.5,7.5) node {22};
\draw (2.5,7.5) node {23};
\draw (3.5,7.5) node {24};
\draw (4.5,7.5) node {25};
\draw (5.5,7.5) node {26};
\draw (6.5,7.5) node {27};
\draw (7.5,7.5) node {28};
\draw (8.5,7.5) node {29};
\draw (9.5,7.5) node {30};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,6.5) node {31};
\draw (1.5,6.5) node {32};
\draw (2.5,6.5) node {33};
\draw (3.5,6.5) node {34};
\draw (4.5,6.5) node {35};
\draw (5.5,6.5) node {36};
\draw (6.5,6.5) node {37};
\draw (7.5,6.5) node {38};
\draw (8.5,6.5) node {39};
\draw (9.5,6.5) node {40};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,5.5) node {41};
\draw (1.5,5.5) node {42};
\draw (2.5,5.5) node {43};
\draw (3.5,5.5) node {44};
\draw (4.5,5.5) node {45};
\draw (5.5,5.5) node {46};
\draw (6.5,5.5) node {47};
\draw (7.5,5.5) node {48};
\draw (8.5,5.5) node {49};
\draw (9.5,5.5) node {50};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,4.5) node {51};
\draw (1.5,4.5) node {52};
\draw (2.5,4.5) node {53};
\draw (3.5,4.5) node {54};
\draw (4.5,4.5) node {55};
\draw (5.5,4.5) node {56};
\draw (6.5,4.5) node {57};
\draw (7.5,4.5) node {58};
\draw (8.5,4.5) node {59};
\draw (9.5,4.5) node {60};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,3.5) node {61};
\draw (1.5,3.5) node {62};
\draw (2.5,3.5) node {63};
\draw (3.5,3.5) node {64};
\draw (4.5,3.5) node {65};
\draw (5.5,3.5) node {66};
\draw (6.5,3.5) node {67};
\draw (7.5,3.5) node {68};
\draw (8.5,3.5) node {69};
\draw (9.5,3.5) node {60};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,2.5) node {71};
\draw (1.5,2.5) node {72};
\draw (2.5,2.5) node {73};
\draw (3.5,2.5) node {74};
\draw (4.5,2.5) node {75};
\draw (5.5,2.5) node {76};
\draw (6.5,2.5) node {77};
\draw (7.5,2.5) node {78};
\draw (8.5,2.5) node {79};
\draw (9.5,2.5) node {80};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,1.5) node {81};
\draw (1.5,1.5) node {82};
\draw (2.5,1.5) node {83};
\draw (3.5,1.5) node {84};
\draw (4.5,1.5) node {85};
\draw (5.5,1.5) node {86};
\draw (6.5,1.5) node {87};
\draw (7.5,1.5) node {88};
\draw (8.5,1.5) node {89};
\draw (9.5,1.5) node {90};
%--------------------------
\draw (0.5,0.5) node {91};
\draw (1.5,0.5) node {92};
\draw (2.5,0.5) node {93};
\draw (3.5,0.5) node {94};
\draw (4.5,0.5) node {95};
\draw (5.5,0.5) node {96};
\draw (6.5,0.5) node {97};
\draw (7.5,0.5) node {98};
\draw (8.5,0.5) node {99};
\draw (9.5,0.5) node {100};
\end{tikzpicture} 
\end{document}

This is what results:

sieve

Evidently it is not the most suitable way and it took me a while to get it right. I know there is a less tedious way of doing it but for the moment this is what I have to deal with. If anyone can assist me with the matter I would appreciate it. Something tells me that a \foreach would suffice but I still don't know its implementation.

share|improve this question
9  
Offtopic: This looks like a prime table, not an illustration of the sieve of Eratosthenes. The latter would show the steps of the algorithm. –  Andrey Vihrov Feb 15 '12 at 20:50
    
I added the tag "luatex", because the answer of Andrew Stacey seems to me as a book-proof how LuaTeX can improve the abilities of tikz. Besides that, all answers here are incredible. –  Keks Dose Feb 16 '12 at 15:16
1  
@AndreyVihrov I suppose my title was clear in the sense of an illustration of the algorithm. I suppose it would be offtopic if I had asked for the algorithm. But I appreciate the input from all of you. Incredible results and fabulous TeXing. I would want to accept all of your answers but that is not possible. hi5 to everyone. –  azetina Feb 16 '12 at 16:23
2  
Just a suggestion: Since there are great responses here, why not ask Stefan to one of the solutions on Texample.net? –  azetina Feb 16 '12 at 19:07

8 Answers 8

up vote 123 down vote accepted

As others have pointed out the static output showing the final results (even with different shadings and colors) still looks like a table of primes. Well, then the only way to properly show this is to use animations.

This uses the actual Sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm to highlight each multiple of 2 in red to mark it as non-prime. Then, the next unmarked number is prime, and its multiples are marked as non-prime. The darker the shade of red indicates the higher number of times that number got marked as non-prime (i.e., has a higher number of prime factors). At each step, the newly found prime is highlighted in blue, and the list of current primes is shown.


Animated Version:

The PDF animation can be produced with the following settings:

%\def\ShowStepByStep{}%  Ignored in this case
\def\AnimateSieve{}%     
%\def\AnimatedGif{}%     Must be commented

For a 10x10 use (See Further Enhancements section below regarding \FramesToHoldAtEnd):

\def\NumOfColumns{10}%   
\def\NumOfRows{10}%   
\def\FramesToHoldAtEnd{25}% 25 is enough for 10x10

Note that this requires a PDF viewer capable of showing animations (such as Acrobat).

A gif animation can also be produced:

enter image description here

The above animation used the following settings:

%\def\ShowStepByStep{}%  Ignored in this case
%\def\AnimateSieve{}%    Ignored in this case
\def\AnimatedGif{}% 
\def\NumOfColumns{5}%   
\def\NumOfRows{5}%   
\def\FramesToHoldAtEnd{10}%

and post-processed as per Converting beamer slides to animated images:

pdfcrop SieveOfEratosthenesAnimated.pdf
convert -verbose -delay 100 -loop 0 -density 400 SieveOfEratosthenesAnimated-crop.pdf SieveOfEratosthenesAnimated.gif

This also necessitated scaling of the tikzpicture to get a reasonable sized gif for display here, and hence this looks slightly different than the others.


Paper Version: Step-by-Step

But this raises the question: But what if I want to show the steps on paper? Well, then with the settings below you get a step-by-step approach.

\def\ShowStepByStep{}%
%\def\AnimateSieve{}%   This MUST be commented
%\def\AnimatedGif{}%    This MUST be commented
\def\NumOfColumns{7}%   
\def\NumOfRows{7}%   
\def\FramesToHoldAtEnd{10}%

enter image description here

Paper Version: Final Table

To obtain just the final table for a 10x10, use the settings:

%\def\ShowStepByStep{}%  ALL of these must be commented
%\def\AnimateSieve{}% 
%\def\AnimatedGif{}% 
\def\NumOfColumns{10}%   
\def\NumOfRows{10}%   
\def\FramesToHoldAtEnd{25}% 25 is enough for 10x10

enter image description here

Non-square sizes can be produced as well by adjusting the value of \NumOfColumns and \NumOfRows:

enter image description here

Questions:

  • There are two places where there might be some code clean up (or at least clear up some confusion on my end as to why what I expected did not work). These are marked as Question 1 and Question 2. If I don't figure them out, I will post new questions.

Notes:

  • The shading is done on the background layer so that the numbers do not get obscured.
  • This is my very first attempt at animations within LaTeX so might not be the most efficient method, so probably has much room for improvement.

Further Enhancements:

  • The \FramesToHoldAtEnd must be large enough to find all the remaining primes. The default settting of 25 is enough for 10x10 but this could be automated to add additional frames until all the primes were found in case this was not set to be large enough.

  • Each individual step takes the same amount of time. For a 10x10, there are 50 multiples of 2 to eliminate, and only 20 for multiples of 5. Instead of each step taking the same amount of time, could adjust it so that an entire list of multiples are processed in the same amount of time. So, for example, the 50 multiples of 2 are highlighted in 3 seconds, and the 20 multiples of 3 are also highlighted in 3 seconds.

Code:

%%% Sieve of Eratosthenes
%%% ---------------------
%%%
%%%    Step 1: Create a list of consecutive integers 2...n
%%%    Step 2: Let p=2 be the first prime number
%%%    Step 3: Mark multiples of p as non-prime.
%%%    Step 4: First number > p not marked as non-prime is prime.
%%%    Step 5: Repeat from Step 3 with this new prime.
%%%

%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------
%%% Set-up: Choose desired output: 
%%%            1. Animation: GIF, or PDF
%%%            2. Paper version: Step by step) or Final state.
%%% 

%\def\ShowStepByStep{}% Comment out if only want final result

%%% Choose if want animated version. This overrides \ShowStepByStep
\def\AnimateSieve{}% Comment out if don't want animated version

%%% Chose if want animated gif image instead. Overrides \AnimateSieve
%\def\AnimatedGif{}% 
%
%%% The \AnimatedGif option produces a PDF with each page containing
%%% a single frame. To convert this to a GIF, use the following, where
%%% convert is part of ImageMagik
%%%
%%%     pdfcrop SieveOfEratosthenes.pdf
%%%     convert -verbose -delay 100 -loop 0 -density 400 
%%%                      SieveOfEratosthenes-crop.pdf 
%%%                      SieveOfEratosthenes.gif



%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------
%%% Customize: Choose size: NumberOfColumns x NumberOfRows
%%%            Other options may need tweaking based on size settings
%%% 
%%% Note that if the product of \NumOfColumns x \NumOfRows
%%% is greater than 100, the \FramesToHoldAtEnd should be
%%% larger than 25.  No check below is made of this, but will
%%% result in some of larger primes not being highlighted at
%%% the end of the cycle (if this is not large enough).

\def\NumOfColumns{10}% See note above if product of  
\def\NumOfRows{10}%    NumOfColumns and NumOfRows > 100.

%% \FramesToHoldAtEnd should be larger than the number of primes
%% so that they can get highlighted at the end of the process
\def\FrameRate{1}%
\def\FramesToHoldAtStart{3}%
\def\FramesToHoldAtEnd{25}% 25 is enough for 10x10


\def\Scale{0.6}% May need tweaking..

\def\MinipageScale{1.0}%
\def\MinipageScaleForStepByStep{0.49}%

%% Without this scale adjustment for the animated GIF, the image is quite large.
\def\ScaleForAnimatedGif{0.6}%


\def\PrimeColor{yellow}%  Shade for primes found previously
\def\NewPrimeColor{cyan}% Shade for prime just found
\def\NewPrimeText{blue}%  Color for primes in list
\def\NonPrimeColor{red}%  Shade for non-primes


%% List of Primes is typeset into a \node of this width.
\def\TextWidth{2.0cm}%


%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------
\ifdefined\AnimatedGif
    \documentclass[border=2pt,multi=true]{standalone}
\else\ifdefined\AnimateSieve
    \documentclass{article}
\else
    \documentclass{article}% for paper version
\fi\fi

%%% Can use the following to show the final state for large 
%%% (tested up to 53x52) 
%\usepackage[paperwidth=35in,paperheight=35in]{geometry}
\usepackage{geometry}

\usepackage{microtype}%       Allow comma into margin in list of primes
\usepackage{xstring}%         String comparison
\usepackage{tikz}%            Drawing
\usetikzlibrary{calc}%        Coordinate calculations
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds}% Apply shading on background layer

\ifdefined\AnimatedGif
    \usepackage{animate}% no controls, or looping needed
    \def\AnimateSieve{}% Simplifies code if this is set for \AnimatedGif as well.
    \def\Scale{\ScaleForAnimatedGif}% Otherwise GIF is too large

    % Simplifies code below if we just redefine these two from the
    % animate package so that they do don't much.
    \renewenvironment{animateinline}[1]{\begingroup}{\endgroup}% 
    \renewcommand{\newframe}[1][]{\newpage}%
\else% Note: This \else is skipped for \AnimatedGif
    \ifdefined\AnimateSieve% 
        \usepackage[loop,controls]{animate}% looped animation
        \let\ShowStepByStep\relax% Ensure that \ShowStepByStep is undefined
    \else% Print version
        \usepackage{animate}% provides whiledo (could include ifthen)

        % Simplifies code below if we just redefine these two from the
        % animate package so that they do don't much.
        \renewenvironment{animateinline}[1]{\begingroup}{\endgroup}% 
        \renewcommand{\newframe}[1][]{\newpage}%

        \ifdefined\ShowStepByStep
            \def\MinipageScale{\MinipageScaleForStepByStep}%
        \fi
    \fi
\fi




%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------
%%% Should not need to adjust anything below this line
%%%
\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\MaxNumber}{\NumOfRows*\NumOfColumns}%
\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\MaxValue}{sqrt(\MaxNumber)}%

% Choose opacity so that we can have the max number of shades
\pgfmathsetmacro{\Opacity}{1.0/min(20,\MaxValue-1)}%

%% The Sieve algorithm requires that once a number is marked
%% as non-prime (i.e., was a multiple of some other number)
%% we don't need to check multiples of that number as they
%% have already been marked as non-prime.
%%
%% Usually one would use an array and set a flag.  But since
%% variables with numbers are difficult with TeX, we can
%% define a node named with the number that is non-prime.
%% Then just check that the node exists to see if it was 
%% marked as non-prime.

\makeatletter
% Mark number as either "Prime" or "NonPrime".
\newcommand*{\MarkNumber}[2][NonPrime]{\node (#1#2) {}}% #1=prefix, #2=num

% http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/37709/how-can-i-know-if-a-node-is-already-defined
\newcommand{\IfNumberAlreadyMarked}[4][NonPrime]{% #1=prefix, #2=num
    \pgfutil@ifundefined{pgf@sh@ns@#1#2}{#4}{#3}%
}

% http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/20655/how-to-undo-a-def-i-e-need-a-undef-capability
\newcommand*\@nameundef[1]{%
    \global\expandafter\let\csname #1\endcsname\@undefined%
}

%% Since we repeat the process from the beginning for the animated
%% version, use this to clear the nodes so that the numbers are
%% not marked as multiples of a number from the previous run.
\newcommand{\ClearAllNumberedNodeNames}{%
    \foreach \i in {1,...,\MaxValue}{%
        \@nameundef{pgf@sh@ns@NonPrime\i}%
        \@nameundef{pgf@sh@ns@Prime\i}%
    }%
}
\makeatother

%% The Sieve algorithm skips multiples of numbers already marked as
%% non-prime.  So, to number the individual steps, need to use
%% a counter.
%% i.e., Step 4 is processing multiples of 5 (since we skip 4).
\newcounter{StepNumber}%


%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------
%%%
%%%  Titles and Labels
%%%

\newcommand\ListOfPrimes{}
\newcommand\AddToListOfPrimes[2][fill=\PrimeColor]{%
    \IfStrEq{\ListOfPrimes}{}{%
        \def\Separator{}%   First member of list of primes
    }{%
        \def\Separator{, }% Subsequent member of list of primes
    }%
    %
    \FillCellForGivenNumber[#1]{#2};%
    \global\edef\ListOfPrimes{\ListOfPrimes\Separator#2}%
    \MarkNumber[Prime]{#2};%
}

\newcommand*{\ClearListOfPrimes}{%
    \ClearAllNumberedNodeNames;%
    \renewcommand{\ListOfPrimes}{}%
}


\newcommand*{\Title}{%
    {\noindent\Large%
        \textbf{Sieve of Eratosthenes}~%
        ($\NumOfColumns \times \NumOfRows$)%
    }%
}

\newcommand*{\SubTitleInitial}{%
    \noindent\textbf{Step \theStepNumber}: Numbers from 2 \ldots\MaxNumber%
}%

\newcommand*{\SubTitle}[1]{%  For animation
    \noindent\textbf{Step \theStepNumber}:~%
    Eliminating multiples of \textcolor{\NewPrimeText}{\textbf{#1}}%
}
\newcommand*{\SubTitlePastTense}[1]{% For step by step
    \noindent\textbf{Step \theStepNumber}:~%
    Eliminated multiples of \textcolor{\NewPrimeText}{\textbf{#1}}%
}
\newcommand*{\SubTitleFinal}{%
    \IfEq{\the\value{StepNumber}}{0}{%
        % We are only showing the final result, so no steps to label.
        % This is when we are not animating (nor showing step by step)
    }{%
        \noindent\textbf{Step \theStepNumber}: Remaining are prime.%
    }%
}


\newcommand*{\AddTitleNode}{%
    \ifdefined\AnimateSieve% Otherwise don't need title each time
        \node [above, yshift=1.0ex] at ($(0,0)!0.5!(\NumOfColumns,0)$) {\Title}
    \fi%
}

\newcommand*{\AddSubTitleNode}[1]{% 
    \IfStrEq{#1}{\empty}{%
        % This is the final hold frame where we are showing the primes
        \node [right] at (-1,0) {\SubTitleFinal}
    }{%
        \ifdefined\AnimateSieve%
            \node at ($(0,0)!0.5!(\NumOfColumns,0)$) {\SubTitle{#1}}
        \else%
            \node [right] at (-1,0) {\SubTitlePastTense{#1}}
        \fi%
    }%
}

\newcommand*{\AddInitialSubTitleNode}[1]{%
    \ifdefined\AnimateSieve%
        \node at ($(0,0)!0.5!(\NumOfColumns,0)$) {\SubTitleInitial}
    \else%
        \node [right] at (-1,0) {\SubTitleInitial}
    \fi%
}


\newcommand*{\Phantom}[1]{}%
\newcommand*{\ShowListOfPrimesNode}{%
    \IfStrEq{\ListOfPrimes}{}{%
        %% Empty list of primes, so don't want to show anything.
        %% Just add phantom spacing
        \renewcommand*{\Phantom}[1]{\phantom{##1}}%
    }{%
        \renewcommand*{\Phantom}[1]{##1}%
    }%

    \node [below right, xshift=0.5em, yshift=-0.5ex, align=left, text width=\TextWidth] 
        at (\NumOfColumns,-1) 
        {\Phantom{\textbf{Primes:}}};

    \node [below right, xshift=0.2em, yshift=-3.5ex, align=left, text width=\TextWidth] 
        at (\NumOfColumns,-1) 
        {\Phantom{\textbf{\textcolor{\NewPrimeText}{\raggedleft\ListOfPrimes}}}};
}

%%% ---------------------------------------------------------------

%%%
%%% Step 1: Create a list of integers 2...n
%%%
\newcommand*{\DrawGridWithNumbers}{%
    \begin{scope}[draw=gray, thick]% Add numbers to each node
        \draw  (0,-1) -- ($(0,-\NumOfRows-1)$);
        \foreach \col in {1,...,\NumOfColumns} {%
            \draw  (\col,-1) -- ($(\col,-\NumOfRows-1)$);

            \draw  (0,-1) -- (\NumOfColumns,-1);
            \foreach \row in {1,...,\NumOfRows}{%
                \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\value}{\col+\NumOfColumns*(\row-1)}
                \IfEq{\value}{1}{
                    %% Suppress number 1 from being printed since first  
                    %% step of Sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm is to 
                    %% create a list of integers 2...n
                }{
                    \node at ($(\col,-\row)-(0.5,0.5)$) {\textbf{\value}};
                }
                \draw (0,-\row-1) -- (\NumOfColumns,-\row-1);
            }
        }
    \end{scope}

    %% Since we just drew the grid we should ensure that none
    %% of the numbered nodes exist (i.e., that no numbers
    %% are marked as non-prime.  And reset list of primes.

    \ClearListOfPrimes;
    \ClearAllNumberedNodeNames;

    \ShowListOfPrimesNode;
}

\newcommand*{\FillCellForGivenNumber}[2][]{%
    %% #1 = fill options
    %% #2 = number
    %%
    \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\Column}{mod(#2,\NumOfColumns)}%
    \IfEq{\Column}{0}{\pgfmathtruncatemacro{\Column}{\NumOfColumns}}{}%
    \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\Row}{(#2-1)/\NumOfColumns+1}%

    \begin{scope}[on background layer]
        \fill [#1]
            (\Column-1,-\Row) --
            ($(\Column-1,-\Row)+(1,0)$) --
            ($(\Column-1,-\Row)+(1,-1)$) -- 
            (\Column-1,-\Row-1) --
            cycle;
    \end{scope}
}



\newcommand*{\ColorMultiplesOf}[2][0]{%
    %% If only 1 arg is given (i.e., #1=0), then 
    %%     #2 = the multiple for which the coloring is applied
    %%
    %% If two args are given (i.e., #1 != 0) then
    %%     #1 = Value of \MaxMultiple (used for animated version)
    %%          In the two arg case we run the entire sequence 
    %%          from the beginning up until the multiple #1*#2 
    %%          is reached.

    \IfEq{#1}{0}{% Run the entire sequence
        \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\MaxMultiple}{\MaxNumber/#2}
    }{%            Run sequence up until number given for animating
        \def\MaxMultiple{#1}
    }

    \foreach \i in {2,...,\MaxMultiple} {
        \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\NonPrimeNumber}{\i*#2}
        \FillCellForGivenNumber[
                fill=\NonPrimeColor, 
                fill opacity=\Opacity
            ]
            {\NonPrimeNumber};
        \MarkNumber[NonPrime]{\NonPrimeNumber};
    }
}


\newcommand*{\BuildFrameInternals}[2][0]{%
    %% #1 = current multiple to which to build the pattern up to
    %%      if #1=0 and #2=\MaxValue, then we are in an end hold frame
    %% #2 = number of whose multiples we are eliminating in this step
    %%      if #2=1, then only draw grid (provides hold frame at start)

    \AddTitleNode;% Print Main title if \AnimateSieve is defined

    \DrawGridWithNumbers;
    \IfEq{#2}{1}{%
        %% This is a hold frame at start so only show grid of numbers
        \AddInitialSubTitleNode{#2};
    }{%
        \IfEq{#2}{2}{%
            %% No pre-processing steps to be done in this case
        }{%
            %% Since we are eliminating multiples of a number  
            %% other than 2, we need to get the table up to  
            %% the state where all the multiples of 2...(#2-1) 
            %% are eliminated.

            \pgfmathsetmacro{\PreviousMultiple}{#2 - 1}%
            \foreach \n in {2,...,\PreviousMultiple} {%
                \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\n}{%
                    %% Skip. Multiples are already marked as non-prime
                    %% since this number is a multiple of a smaller
                    %% prime.
                }{%
                    %% This is a prime. Mark it as prime, and mark 
                    %% its multiples as non-prime.
                    \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\PrimeColor]{\n};
                    \ColorMultiplesOf{\n};
                }
            }
        }

        \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{#2}{%
            %% Already taken care of in a previous run.  This test
            %% is needed to cover the case where the value of the
            %% sqrt{NumberOfColumns x NumberOfRows) is not prime.
            %% For example: 10x10.
        }{%
            %% Now eliminate the numbers up to the current state
            \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\NewPrimeColor]{#2};
            \ColorMultiplesOf[#1]{#2};
        }

        %% If we are holding the very final result don't print title.
        %% This is the case when #2=\MaxValue and #1=0.
        %%
        %% Need to do this at the end so that we can access
        %% which numbers have been marked as non-prime.

        \IfEq{#2}{\MaxValue}{%
            \IfEq{#1}{0}{%
                %% This is the final hold frame
                \SubTitleFinal;

                \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{#2}{%
                }{%
                    \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[Prime]{#2}{%
                        %% In this case, #2 is not a new prime so 
                        %% correct its color. So, don't add it to the
                        %% list of primes, but correct ensure its
                        %% color corresponds to an old prime
                        \FillCellForGivenNumber[fill=\PrimeColor]{#2};
                    }{%
                        %% In this case, #2 is a new prime so 
                        %% add it to the list of primes,                
                        \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\NewPrimeColor]{#2};
                    }%
                }%

                %% But since this is the final hold frame, we need
                %% to mark all the numbers not already marked as 
                %% non-prime as prime. Do one at at time, so that
                %% this can be seen in the animation.

                \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\StartValue}{\MaxValue+1}%
                \foreach \p in {\StartValue,...,\MaxNumber}{%
                    \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\p}{%
                        %% This number has been marked as non-prime
                    }{%
                        %% This is a prime
                        \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[Prime]{\p}{%
                            %% Already found this prime earlier.
                            %% So ensure it has appropriate fill.
                            \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\PrimeColor]{\p};%
                        }{%
                            %% New prime: Mark it as such, and 
                            %% break out to complete this frame.
                            \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\NewPrimeColor]{\p};%
                            \MarkNumber[Prime]{\p};%
                            \AddSubTitleNode{};%
                            \breakforeach;%
                        }%
                    }%
                }%
            }{%
                %% Not final hold frame, so normal title
                \AddSubTitleNode{#2};%
            }%
        }{%
            \AddSubTitleNode{#2};%
        }%
    }%
    \ShowListOfPrimesNode%
}%

\newcommand*{\AddVerticalSpearationForStepByStep}{%
    \ifdefined\ShowStepByStep%  So that the minipages for this case
        \vspace*{4.0ex}%        are not stacked directly on top of
    \fi%                        each other.
}%

\newcommand*{\BuildFrame}[2][0]{%
    %% #1 = current multiple to which to build the pattern up to
    %% #2 = number of whose multiples we are eliminating in this step
    %%      if #2=1, then only draw grid (provides hold frame at start)
    \noindent%
    \begin{minipage}{\MinipageScale\linewidth}%
    \centering%
    \begin{tikzpicture}[scale=\Scale]%
        \BuildFrameInternals[#1]{#2};
    \end{tikzpicture}%
    %
    \AddVerticalSpearationForStepByStep% Better spacing for Step by Step
    \end{minipage}%
}%

\newcommand*{\BuildFinalFrame}{%
    \noindent%
    \begin{minipage}{\MinipageScale\linewidth}%
    \centering%
    \begin{tikzpicture}[scale=\Scale]%
        \AddTitleNode;% Print Main title if \AnimateSieve is defined
        \AddSubTitleNode{};
        \DrawGridWithNumbers;
        \foreach \p in {2,...,\MaxValue}{%
            \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\p}{%
            }{%
                \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\PrimeColor]{\p};
                \ColorMultiplesOf{\p};
            }%
        }%
        \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\StartValue}{\MaxValue+1}%
        \foreach \p in {\StartValue,...,\MaxNumber}{%
            \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\p}{%
                %% This number has already been marked as non-prime
            }{%
                %% This is a prime. Since we are just printing out
                %% the final results we don't distinguish between a
                %% newly found prime and a prime found previously.
                \AddToListOfPrimes[fill=\PrimeColor]{\p};
            }%
        }%

        \ShowListOfPrimesNode;
    \end{tikzpicture}%
    %
    \AddVerticalSpearationForStepByStep% Better spacing for Step by Step
    \end{minipage}%
}



\begin{document}
\ifdefined\AnimateSieve
    \newcounter{CountK}
    \newcounter{CountP}
    \newcounter{CurrentMaxMultiplePlusOne}
    %
    \begin{animateinline}{\FrameRate}%
        \stepcounter{StepNumber}%
        \setcounter{CountK}{0}%
        \whiledo{\arabic{CountK} < \FramesToHoldAtStart}{%
            \BuildFrame[0]{1}% initial hold frame
            \newframe[\FrameRate]%
            \stepcounter{CountK}%
        }%
        %
        \setcounter{CountK}{2}%
        \whiledo{\numexpr\arabic{CountK}-1 < \MaxValue}{%
            \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\arabic{CountK}}{%
                %% \value{CountK} has already been marked as non-prime.
                %% Hence, so so are its multiples, and we can skip it.
            }{%
%% Question 1: Should be able to replace three lines following with
%%             this. But then animation seems to skip the loop below
% \pgfmathsetcounter{CurrentMaxMultiplePlusOne}{1+(\MaxNumber/\arabic{CountK})}%
                \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\MaxMultiple}{\MaxNumber/\arabic{CountK}}%
                \setcounter{CurrentMaxMultiplePlusOne}{\MaxMultiple}%
                \stepcounter{CurrentMaxMultiplePlusOne}%
                %
                \setcounter{CountP}{2}% 
                \stepcounter{StepNumber}%
%% Question 2: Ideally would prefer to use the following syntax
%%             but this does not even compile!!!   But, an indentical
%%             syntax works in the above `\whiledo`, where the value of
%%             \MaxValue was also defined by \pgfmathtruncatemacro
%               \whiledo{\numexpr\arabic{CountP}-1 < \MaxMultiple}{%
                \whiledo{\arabic{CountP} < \arabic{CurrentMaxMultiplePlusOne}}{%
                    \BuildFrame[\theCountP]{\theCountK}%
                    \newframe[\FrameRate]%
                    \stepcounter{CountP}%
                }%
            }%
            \stepcounter{CountK}%
        }%
        % At end, add hold frames in case we are looping
        %
        % There needs to be enough of these so that each of the
        % primes (those not colored in) get highlighted at each frame.
        %
        \setcounter{CountK}{2}%
        \whiledo{\numexpr\arabic{CountK}-1 < \FramesToHoldAtEnd}{%
            \BuildFrame{\MaxValue}%
            \newframe[\FrameRate]%
            \stepcounter{CountK}%
        }
    \end{animateinline}%
\else\ifdefined\ShowStepByStep
    \parbox{0.95\linewidth}{\centering\Title\newline}%
    \bigskip\par%
    \setcounter{StepNumber}{1}%
    \BuildFrame[0]{1}% Initial frame
    \hfill%
    %
    \foreach \k in {2,...,\MaxValue}{%
        \IfNumberAlreadyMarked[NonPrime]{\k}{%
            % \k has already been marked as non-prime.
            % Hence, so so are its multiples, and we can skip it.
        }{%
            % This is a prime, so mark it as such and mark all the
            % multiples up to \MaxMultipleOfK as non-prime
            \stepcounter{StepNumber}%
            \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\MaxMultipleOfK}{\MaxNumber/\k}%
            \BuildFrame[\MaxMultipleOfK]{\k}%
            \hfill%
        }%
    }%
    %
    \stepcounter{StepNumber}%
    \BuildFinalFrame% Final Frame
\else% We only want to show the final frame
    \parbox{0.95\linewidth}{\centering\Title}
    \setcounter{StepNumber}{0}
    \par
    \BuildFinalFrame%
\fi% \ifdefined\ShowStepByStep
\fi% \ifdefined\AnimateSieve
\end{document}
share|improve this answer
3  
I believe that you shouldn't mark the first numbers (2,3,5,7) either. –  Loop Space Feb 15 '12 at 21:51
    
@AndrewStacey: Yep was just fixing that. Have corrected it. –  Peter Grill Feb 15 '12 at 22:00
1  
It should be 5, i.e. the next non-eliminated one, because continuing with non-primes just crosses out duplicates. –  Psirus Feb 18 '12 at 15:12
1  
@Brent.Longborough: Thanks for pointing out the nit pick. Took me quite a bit of time to fix it, but is fixed now... –  Peter Grill Feb 23 '12 at 22:15
5  
Impressive comprehensive code! I posted it in the TikZ example gallery. –  Stefan Kottwitz Feb 25 '12 at 23:28

Just for fun - and because I thought it was time I tried out lualatex - here's a version that uses a lua script to figure out all the necessary gubbins ahead of time. Then TeX just has to look up the answer when it renders the sieve.

Lua file (save as sieve.lua)

#! lua

-- Ideally, this would be a parameter passed from the TeX file
local max = 100
-- This is how far we need to go when implementing the sieve
local lim = math.ceil(math.sqrt(max))
-- An array to store the numbers we're considering
local numbers = {}
-- This is our prime counter: what number prime are we at?
local prime = 1
-- This is our global array that will hold the style counter
-- for each number.  The value of styles[n] will be as follows:
-- if n is prime then it is 1, otherwise
-- figure out the lowest prime divisor of n, and then take its
-- index in the list of primes plus one (so styles[6] is 2 because
-- 2 is the first prime)
-- (Maybe it would have been better to start at 0)
styles = {}
-- populate our array of numbers to consider and set all styles to
-- 1 (=prime) 
for i = 2,max do
   numbers[i] = true
   styles[i] = prime
end
-- If we decide to show what happens to 1, it should be something
-- completely different
styles[1] = 0
-- Now iterate through the numbers up to the square root of our
-- largest number
for j = 2,lim do
-- Have we already discarded this one?  If not, must be prime
   if numbers[j] then
-- Increment the prime counter
      prime = prime + 1
-- I thought that the pairs method worked on a copy of the table
-- so it was safe to delete entries as we go along.  Didn't seem
-- to be true so we need to mark the entries for deletion without
-- actually deleting them
      local remove = {}
-- Here's a key optimisation: we only need to consider multiples of
-- this prime by numbers that haven't yet been removed from the list
      for k,v in pairs(numbers) do
-- Check we're not out of range, would be nice to be able to start
-- at the bottom and work up, but then we'd have to sort the indices
-- each iteration and that seems like a waste of time
-- Also check that we haven't already deleted the product
         if k*j <= max
            and numbers[k*j]
         then
-- Mark it for deletion
            table.insert(remove,k*j)
         end
      end
-- Now iterate through our "to remove" list, removing each one
-- from the main list and setting the corresponding style to our
-- current index in the prime list (plus one)
      for k,v in ipairs(remove) do
          numbers[v] = nil
          styles[v] = prime
      end
-- We've dealt with this prime, no need to consider it again
      numbers[j] = nil
   end
end

LuaLaTeX file (compile with lualatex)

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}

\directlua{dofile('sieve.lua')}

\tikzset{eratosthenes/.style={
    fill=eratosthenes #1 colour,
    eratosthenes #1 style/.try,
  },
  eratosthenes 0 style/.style={text=white},
}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 0 colour}{white}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 1 colour}{red}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 2 colour}{orange}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 3 colour}{yellow}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 4 colour}{green}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 5 colour}{blue}
\colorlet{eratosthenes 6 colour}{purple}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\foreach \n in {2,...,100} {%
  \node[
    draw,
    anchor=north west,
    minimum size=1cm,
    eratosthenes=\directlua{tex.print(styles[\n])}
  ] at ({Mod((\n-1),10)},{-floor((\n-1)/10)}) {\n};
}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

Note, it would be quite fun to combine this with tikz: a big box with fixed width containing smaller boxes to make the table auto-format according to size.

Result:

Sieve of Eratosthenes with LuaLaTeX

Hmm, for some reason I seem to have gone for the primes being red. Not sure that primes are red. I see them more as purple with yellow spots. But that's for another day ...

Added in Edit As Keks comments below, this solution is fairly scalable (providing you define the colours, or figure out an automatic way of colouring). On my machine, a run of up to 10,000 takes just under a minute and produces this rather large PNG.

share|improve this answer
    
All the answers here are fantastic. But I guess that your way to solve the problem has the advantage of being fast and scaleable. I added colors for 7, 8 and 9 primes, went for the first 400 numbers and got a result within seconds. –  Keks Dose Feb 16 '12 at 12:01
    
@KeksDose I'd actually forgotten why I thought of doing this in lua! When I read the other answers, I saw the comment about TeX complaining at high numbers and thought that exporting that part to lua might solve it. But then when I came to actually do the implementation, I forgot that reason! I just got it to do 10,000 in just under a minute. Most of that is rendering as running the script with just lua took 0.02s. –  Loop Space Feb 16 '12 at 13:18
    
@AndrewStacey Very impressive and thanks ! because I forgot than it's possible to use ` Mod(...,...)` inside a node to calculate directly the coordinates ! It's always useful to read the answers of contributors (and great experts in this case) –  Alain Matthes Feb 16 '12 at 16:38
    
@Andrew: I don't know about where the limit comes from, but doing Knuth's \primes from The TeXbook with first 10,000 primes doesn't give any errors (and runs quite fast). –  morbusg Feb 16 '12 at 19:38
1  
@AndrewStacey: You're welcome, this might be my favorite kind of edit -- little effort, big effect :). For more languages, see meta.stackexchange.com/a/81971/162565. –  doncherry Feb 16 '12 at 20:56

Here is a shaded polygon-based approach.
(Click image below for 2x larger version.)

normal-size

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[margin=1in]{geometry}
\pagestyle{empty}

\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{ifthen}

\newcommand{\setxy}[1]{
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\x}{Mod(#1,\cols)}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\y}{#1 / \cols}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\y}{\cols - 1 - \y}
  \pgfmathparse{2.5*(\x+.5)}\let\x\pgfmathresult
  \pgfmathparse{2.5*(\y+.5)}\let\y\pgfmathresult
}

\newcommand{\polygon}[2]{
  \setxy{#1}
  \ifthenelse{#2>1}{ % Polygon must have at least 2 sides.
    \ifthenelse{#2<20}{ % Draw polygon if it has a small number of sides.
      \filldraw (\x,\y) +(90:1)
      \foreach \i in {1,...,#2} {-- +(\i/#2*360+90:1)} -- cycle;
    }{ % Else approximate with circle.
      \filldraw (\x,\y) circle(1);
    }
  }{}
}

\newcommand{\numlabel}[1]{
  \setxy{\n}
  % Simulate a white outline around the black text.
  \foreach \xs in {-.5,-.25,0,.25,.5} {
    \foreach \ys in {-.5,-.25,0,.25,.5} {
      \node[fill=none, opacity=.25, text=black!10!white,
            xshift=\xs, yshift=\ys] at (\x,\y) {\tiny\n}; }}
  % Now draw the black text.
  \node[fill=none, text=black] at (\x,\y) {\tiny\n};
}


\newcommand{\sieve}[2]{
  \def\cols{#1}
  \def\rows{#2}
  \begin{tikzpicture}[scale=.5]
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nmax}{\rows * \cols - 1}
  % Draw light-colored polygon outlines for all numbers.
  \begin{scope}[fill=white, draw=black!5!white, line width=4]
    \foreach \n in {0,...,\nmax} {\polygon{\n}{\n}}
  \end{scope}
  % Draw thin-dark-lined and slightly filled polygons at intervals.
  \begin{scope}[fill=black, fill opacity=.08,
                draw=black, draw opacity=1,
                line width=.5]
    \foreach \n in {2,...,\nmax} {
      \pgfmathparse{\n+1}\let\m\pgfmathresult
      \foreach \i in {\m,...,\nmax} {
        \pgfmathparse{Mod(\i,\n)==0? 1:0}
        \ifnum\pgfmathresult=1
          \polygon{\i}{\n}
        \fi
      }
    }
  \end{scope}
  % Draw numeric labels.
  \begin{scope}[fill=none, draw=black]
    \foreach \n in {0,...,\nmax} {\numlabel{\n}}
  \end{scope}
  \end{tikzpicture}
}

\begin{document}
\sieve{12}{16}
\end{document}

Or, for grid starting at 1 instead of 0, you can tweak the calculation of \x and \y to be #1-1 instead of #1, and let \nmax be \rows * \cols instead of \rows * \cols - 1.

Here’s 10x10:

10x10

share|improve this answer
4  
Nice! For the white outline of the text, you could also use the contour package, as shown in TikZ: Halo around Text –  Jake Feb 17 '12 at 9:40
1  
Sweet. An amazing job indeed. –  azetina Feb 17 '12 at 13:31
1  
Such a nice finishing touch. –  percusse Feb 18 '12 at 0:26

Color version of the polygon approach

I'm posting a second answer here because I think it's different enough from my previous answer. Changes I made:

  • Added color. It is now much easier to identify individual numbers by eye.
  • Removed non-prime polygons from walkthrough. This is truer to the classic approach. There's little sense in marking off multiples of 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, etc.
  • Added prime factorization to coloring methodology. The more times a factor appears, the darker it appears in the coloring. For example, the powers primes such as 27 (3³), 25 (2²), and 49 (7²) have notably more intense color than their prime bases 3, 5, and 7. This is also true for powers of 2, which are shown using increasingly thick lines.

(Click image below for 2x larger version.)

10x10 small

Source code:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[margin=.25in]{geometry}
\pagestyle{empty}

\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{ifthen}

\newcommand{\setisprime}[1]{
  % Sets \isprime based on #1.
  \ifnum#1=1 \gdef\isprime{0} \else \gdef\isprime{1} \fi
  \foreach \sip in {2, 3,5,...,#1} {
    \pgfmathparse{\sip*\sip>#1? 1:0}
    \ifthenelse{\pgfmathresult=1}{
      % Early-out if \sip^2 > #1.
      \breakforeach
    }{
      % Otherwise test if \sip divides #1.
      \pgfmathparse{Mod(#1,\sip)==0? 1:0}
      \ifthenelse{\pgfmathresult=1}{
        \gdef\isprime{0}
        \breakforeach
      }{}
    }
  }
}

\newcommand{\setxy}[1]{
  % Sets \x and \y to loction of cell #1.
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\x}{Mod(#1-1,\cols)}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\y}{(#1-1) / \cols}
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\y}{\cols - 1 - \y}
  \pgfmathparse{2.5*(\x+.5)}\let\x\pgfmathresult
  \pgfmathparse{2.5*(\y+.5)}\let\y\pgfmathresult
}

\newcommand{\numlabel}[2]{
  % Draws label #2 at cell #1.
  \setxy{\n}
  \node[fill=none, text=black] at (\x,\y) {#2};
}

\newcommand{\drawpolygon}[2]{
  % Draws polygon with #2 vertexes at cell #1.
  \setxy{#1}
  \ifthenelse{#2>1}{ % Polygon must have at least 2 sides.
    \ifthenelse{#2<30}{ % Draw polygon if it has a small number of sides.
      \filldraw (\x,\y) +(90:1)
      \foreach \drawi in {1,...,#2} {-- +(\drawi/#2*360+90:1)} -- cycle;
    }{ % Else approximate with circle.
      \filldraw (\x,\y) circle(1);
    }
  }{}
}

\newcommand{\setpolygoncolor}[1]{
  % Sets color based on #1.
  \gdef\polycolor{black}
  \ifnum#1=2\gdef\polycolor{black!50!white}\fi
  \ifnum#1=3\gdef\polycolor{yellow!95!red}\fi
  \ifnum#1=5\gdef\polycolor{yellow!0!red}\fi
  \ifnum#1=7\gdef\polycolor{blue!75!green}\fi
  \ifnum#1=11\gdef\polycolor{blue!70!red}\fi
  \ifnum#1=13\gdef\polycolor{blue!40!red}\fi
  \ifnum#1=17\gdef\polycolor{green!50!blue}\fi
  \ifnum#1=19\gdef\polycolor{green!80!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=23\gdef\polycolor{green!50!red}\fi
  \ifnum#1=29\gdef\polycolor{yellow!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=31\gdef\polycolor{orange!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=37\gdef\polycolor{red!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=41\gdef\polycolor{purple!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=43\gdef\polycolor{blue!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=47\gdef\polycolor{green!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=53\gdef\polycolor{white!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=59\gdef\polycolor{white!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=61\gdef\polycolor{white!50!black}\fi
  \ifnum#1=67\gdef\polycolor{white!50!black}\fi
}

\newcommand{\sieve}[2]{
  \def\cols{#1}
  \def\rows{#2}
  \begin{tikzpicture}[scale=.5]
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nmax}{\rows * \cols}

  \foreach \n in {1,...,\nmax} {
    \begin{scope}[fill=gray, fill opacity=.05,
                  draw=gray, draw opacity=.10,
                  line width=4]
      \drawpolygon{\n}{\n}
    \end{scope}
    \setisprime{\n}
    \ifthenelse{\isprime=1}{
      \numlabel{\n}{\bf\n}
    }{
      \def\startintensity{.33}
      \def\incrintensity{.10}
      \def\intensity{\startintensity}

      \def\m{\n}
      \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\i}{\m / 2}

      % Divide \m by \i until \m is extinguished.
      % Increment \i each time it does not divide into \m.
      \whiledo{\m>1}{
        \setisprime{\i}
        \pgfmathparse{Mod(\m,\i)==0? 1:0}
        \ifthenelse{\pgfmathresult=1\and\isprime=1}{
          \setpolygoncolor{\i}
          \begin{scope}[fill=\polycolor, fill opacity=\intensity,
                        draw=\polycolor!85!black, draw opacity=\intensity,
                        line width=\intensity*1.5]
            \drawpolygon{\n}{\i}
          \end{scope}
          \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\m}{\m / \i}
          \pgfmathparse{\intensity + \incrintensity}\let\intensity\pgfmathresult
        }{
          \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\i}{\i - 1}
          \def\intensity{\startintensity}
        }
      }
      \begin{scope}[text=black, text opacity=.5]
        \numlabel{\n}{\scriptsize\n}
      \end{scope}
    }
  }

  \end{tikzpicture}
}

\begin{document}
\sieve{10}{10}
\end{document}

Numbers up to 320:

16x20 small

share|improve this answer
    
I think you can simplify further by using the shapes library with regular polygons. –  percusse Feb 18 '12 at 4:17
2  
Absolutely amazing. Great work! –  azetina Feb 19 '12 at 22:27
2  
this is my favourite. I even printed it... thanks man. –  Sebastian Feb 20 '12 at 21:25
1  
It might benefit from a halo around the text, but this is amazing. my favourite answer –  EricR Feb 21 '12 at 22:01
    
Looks great! How bout making it more logical by using a triangular approach so that the diagonal contains primes and the columns are all multiples of the top entry. e.g. the rows are {2}, {,3}, {4,,5}, {6,6,,7}, {8,9,10,,11}, etc.. or {2,3,5,7,11,13,...}, {4,6,10,14,..}, ..., {k*p_i}. Or even some arbitrary way to order/visualize the elements? The last approach above makes it clear exactly how the sieve works and one must only realize that all numbers exist in the arrangement. –  AbstractDissonance Jun 28 '12 at 7:52

The comment of Andrey was right. My first code looks like a prime table, not an illustration of the sieve of Eratosthenes. The nest code shows the steps of the algorithm. My first answer was exactly a table of prime and not the Sieve of Eratosthenes, the next code is the Sieve of Eratosthenes like a student can do. No prime numbers are colored with order : multiples of 2, multiples of 3 etc. I avoid to use CVS version.

Update 2

I try again to get a more compact, more elegant and more quicker code. I adapted a part of Andrew's solution : Mod inside the coordinates ! I reduced the loops. Now the code follows the natural algorithm. The code is quicker about 1s.

enter image description here

New code 2

Main idea : I need only to test with the prime numbers 2, 3, 5 and 7 because the larger number is 100. All the code is based on \testcolorednode.

1) For 2,3,5 and 7, I create a node named for all multiples <101. 2) When I finish to find all the multiples, I need to draw the prime number. A number is a prime if this number is not inside a colored and named node.

\documentclass{article}
\PassOptionsToPackage{dvipsnames,svgnames}{xcolor}       
\usepackage{tikz}    
\makeatletter
\newcommand\testcolorednode[3]{%
           \pgfutil@ifundefined{pgf@sh@ns@#1}{#2}{#3}}% is named node ? 
\makeatother

\begin{document} 
\begin{tikzpicture}[every node/.style={minimum size= 1cm,circle}]
 \foreach \nb/\col in {2/blue,3/green,5/orange,7/red} {%
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nbi}{\nb}  
  \loop 
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nbi}{\nbi+\nb}
  \testcolorednode{\nbi}{%
  \node[ball color=\col!20](\nbi) at ({Mod((\nbi-1),10)},{-floor((\nbi-1)/10)})    
        {\nbi};}{} 
   \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nbt}{\nbi+\nb}%
   \ifnum\nbt<101  \repeat}% end foreach now we can complete the table with primes
\foreach \nb in {2,...,100} 
    {\testcolorednode{\nb}{%
       \node[ball color=Gold](\nb) at ({Mod((\nb-1),10)},{-floor((\nb-1)/10)}) {\nb};}{}}%  
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} 

enter image description here

Notes

I use the colors with order of a rainbow to color the cases of non prime numbers. purple for multiples of 2, blue for multiples of 3, yellow for multiples of 5 and red for multiples of 7. It's enough for numbers < 100. \myscaleis a macro to scale the picture.

Important

I don't use another package to mark if a case is colored, I use a \pgfutil@ifundefined{pgf@sh@ns@\t} to know if the node \t exists anf if this node is colored

Code

\documentclass{article}   
\usepackage{tikz}    

\begin{document} 
 \def\myscale{1}
\begin{tikzpicture}[y=-1cm,scale=\myscale] 

\makeatletter
 \foreach \i/\c in {2/purple,3/blue,5/yellow,7/red} {%
  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\start}{\i+1}
 \foreach \t in {\start,...,100} {%
  \pgfmathparse{mod(\t,\i)==0? 0 : 1}
  \ifnum \pgfmathresult=0      
  \pgfutil@ifundefined{pgf@sh@ns@\t}{% 
  \pgfmathparse{mod(\t,10)}   \let\yc\pgfmathresult 
  \pgfmathparse{mod(\t,10)==0? 1 : 0} 
  \ifnum  \pgfmathresult=1  \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\yc}{\yc+10} \fi   
  \pgfmathparse{(\t-\yc)/10)} \let\xc\pgfmathresult  
  \node[minimum size= 1cm*\myscale,fill=\c!50,](\t) at (\yc-1,\xc+1) {};}{} 
  \fi
}% 
}  
  \foreach \x in {0,...,9}
    \foreach \y in {1,...,10}
    {% 
      \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nb}{\x*10+\y} 
      \draw (\x,\y) +(-.5cm,-.5cm) rectangle ++(.5cm,.5cm);   
      \node[minimum size= 1cm*\myscale] at (\y-1,\x+1) {\nb} ;    
}     
\end{tikzpicture} 
\end{document}  

** A variant ** To use cross, I need to create firstly the nodes but without color and then to draw a cross on the case.

The last lines change :

 \node[minimum size= 1cm*\myscale](\t) at (\yc-1,\xc+1) {};
 \draw[\c,ultra thick](\t.north west)--(\t.south east) 
                    (\t.north east)--(\t.south west);    }{}  

enter image description here

share|improve this answer
    
Quite beautiful! –  percusse Feb 16 '12 at 11:27

With the pgf 2.1 cvs version but it's possible to use the definition of pgfmathisprime (see below) or with the file tkz-tool-arith.tex.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}    

\begin{document} 

\begin{tikzpicture}[y=-1cm] 
  \foreach \x in {0,...,9}
    \foreach \y in {1,...,10}
    { \draw (\x,\y) +(-.5cm,-.5cm) rectangle ++(.5cm,.5cm);
      \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\nb}{\x*10+\y}
       \ifnum\nb=1 \def\pgfmathresult{1}
       \else
      \node[minimum size= 1cm](last) at (\y-1,\x+1) {\nb} ;  
      \pgfmathisprime{\nb}
      \fi
     \ifnum\pgfmathresult=0 
      \draw[red](last.north west)--(last.south east) 
                (last.north east)--(last.south west);
      \fi}
\end{tikzpicture} 

\end{document} 

enter image description here

If you need the pgfmathisprime the code is below (created with the help of cjorssen).

\tkzutil@ifundefined{pgfmath@function@isprime}{%
\newif\ifpgf@unknown
\newif\ifpgf@isaprime    
\pgfmathdeclarefunction{isprime}{1}{%
    \begingroup%
\pgf@unknowntrue
\c@pgfmath@counta#1\relax% 
 \ifcase#1\relax 
 % |#1| = 0 
 \pgf@isaprimefalse\pgf@unknownfalse
 \or
 % |#1| = 1
  \pgf@isaprimefalse\pgf@unknownfalse
  \or
% |#1| = 2
  \pgf@isaprimetrue\pgf@unknownfalse
 \or
% |#1| = 3
  \pgf@isaprimetrue\pgf@unknownfalse
   \else
 % |#1| > 3
   \ifodd#1\relax 
   \else
    \pgf@isaprimefalse\pgf@unknownfalse
   \fi
 \fi  
\ifpgf@unknown
\c@pgfmath@countd=\thr@@ \pgf@isaprimetrue
 \loop
 \c@pgfmath@countb=\c@pgfmath@counta  
 \divide\c@pgfmath@countb by\c@pgfmath@countd
  \ifnum\c@pgfmath@countb>\c@pgfmath@countd \pgf@unknowntrue
  \else\pgf@unknownfalse\fi
    \multiply\c@pgfmath@countb by\c@pgfmath@countd
  \ifnum\c@pgfmath@countb=\c@pgfmath@counta  
   \global\pgf@isaprimefalse\pgf@unknownfalse\fi
  \ifpgf@unknown\advance\c@pgfmath@countd by 2\relax% 
 \repeat
\fi
\ifpgf@isaprime
  \def\pgfmathresult{1}%
\else
  \def\pgfmathresult{0}%
\fi
 \pgfmath@smuggleone\pgfmathresult%
\endgroup
}}{} 
share|improve this answer
4  
I consider 1 is not prime because it has only one divisor –  Alain Matthes Feb 15 '12 at 20:38
    
1 is not prime, but the sieve algorithm will not red-cross it. –  Andrey Vihrov Feb 15 '12 at 20:44
    
Where is pgfmathisprime defined? –  Psirus Feb 15 '12 at 20:50
    
@Psirus You need the cvs version of pgf/tikz. –  cjorssen Feb 15 '12 at 20:51
    
@AndreyVihrov ok I update my answer –  Alain Matthes Feb 15 '12 at 20:54

Bah, Peter was way faster than me but maybe I can get away with the compactness :)

Here it is:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\draw \foreach \p in {0.5,1.5,...,10.5} {(\p,0.5)--(\p,10.5) (0.5,\p)--(10.5,\p)};
\foreach[count=\ccolno] \x in {0,10,...,90}{
        \foreach[count=\rrowno] \y in {1,...,10}
        {
        \pgfmathtruncatemacro{\value}{\x+\y}
        \node[minimum size=0.8cm] (n\value) at (\rrowno,\ccolno) {\value};
        }
}
\foreach [evaluate=\x as \shade using \x*10] \x in {2,...,10}{
        \foreach \y in {4,6,8,9,...,100}
        {
            \pgfmathparse{Mod(\y,\x)==0? 1 : 0}
            \ifnum \pgfmathresult=1
                    \begin{scope}[on background layer]
                    \node[fill=yellow!\shade!white,opacity=0.2,inner sep=5mm] at (n\y) {};
                    \end{scope}
                    \draw[red] (n\y.north east)--(n\y.south west) (n\y.north west)--(n\y.south east) ;
            \fi
        }
}
\node[fill=white,minimum size=0.9cm] at (n1) {}; % 1 is not included
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

enter image description here

Similar to Peter's solution, the color builds up as much as it is passed over by some number multiple check. You can comment it as you wish anyway.

By the way, how I wish to know the \pgfmathisprime ten days ago ! I can't keep up with the speed of the development. Great work guys!

EDIT Thanks to Peter Grill and Todd Lehman, I've fixed a few stupid mistakes and send the coloring to the background layer to make the numbers more visible...

share|improve this answer
    
You have a similar problem I had in my first version where the primes less than 10 are colored. Basically don't color the first number (see my updated version). –  Peter Grill Feb 15 '12 at 22:01
    
@PeterGrill Thanks, I wasn't too careful. –  percusse Feb 15 '12 at 22:05
    
Now you just have to eliminate the 1 (as it is not prime and the Sieve algorithm does not mark it as such). –  Peter Grill Feb 15 '12 at 22:29
    
@PeterGrill You are totally right and I can simply cover it up with a white node. However I have to agree with Andrey Vihrov that this is not a sieve but a table that crosses the nonprimes. So I don't see why we should remove 1 since we don't have a primeness test in the first place. –  percusse Feb 15 '12 at 22:35
1  
@ToddLehman Nice catch! I am somehow very sloppy today. Indeed, the bounding box is affecting the crosses. It can be fixed by giving an inner sep large enough such that it remains constant. Regarding coloring, the simplest way is to send the colored boxes to the background layer. Then, they won't get in the way. I will try to find some time to update it later. Thanks for the reminder though. Feel free to edit if you have something better in mind. –  percusse Feb 16 '12 at 2:19

Just for fun, here is a variation of Alain Matthes answer to produce a sieve of Eratosthenes combined with an Sacks spiral!

enter image description here

The code (using TikZ/pgf v2.1-CVS):

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}    
\tikzset{
  number/.style={circle,inner sep=1pt},
  prime number/.style={number,fill=lime},
  non prime number/.style={number,fill=white,draw=red!50},
}
\begin{document} 
\begin{tikzpicture}[font=\bfseries\tiny]
  \coordinate (last);
  \foreach \nb in {0,...,100}{
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\r}{sqrt(\nb)*.5}
    \pgfmathsetmacro{\a}{sqrt(\nb)*360}
    \coordinate(new) at (\a:\r);
    \draw[dotted] (last) to[bend right={6/sqrt(\nb)}] (new);
    \pgfmathisprime{\nb}
    \ifnum\pgfmathresult=0 
    \node[non prime number](last) at (\a:\r) {\nb};
    \else
    \node[prime number](last) at (\a:\r) {\nb};
    \fi
  }
\end{tikzpicture} 
\end{document}
share|improve this answer
    
Intersting outout, but begs for an animation :-). But, when I try to run this I get Undefined control sequence pgfmathisprime with a freshly update (as of today) TeXLive2012. –  Peter Grill Sep 8 '12 at 3:17
1  
@PeterGrill \pgfmathisprime comes with pgf-2.1-CVS. –  Paul Gaborit Sep 8 '12 at 5:05
    
@PeterGrill If you do not want to install pgf-2.1-CVS, you can pick the definition of \pgfmathisprime from Alain Matthes answer (above). –  Paul Gaborit Sep 8 '12 at 5:11

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