# Vertical Line Length in Table

I am practicing LaTeX by recreating tables from one of my professor's textbooks. I came across an example I can't recreate entirely. The problem is that vertical lines in between cells of the table are not complete. This is particularly perplexing to me because it seems the leftmost vertical line is unaffected by whatever is affecting the center vertical line(s).

My syntax follows:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\begin{table}
\begin{tabular}{c|c|c}
\hline
\\[1pt]
&\multicolumn{2}{c}{Time of Occurrence of Independent and}\\
&\multicolumn{2}{c}{Dependent Variables}\\
\\[1pt]
\hline
\\[1pt]
&Prior to Initiation of Study&After Initiation of Study\\
\\[1pt]
\hline
\\[1pt]
Subject Classified on Basis&Retrospective cohort study&Prospective study (follow-up\\
of Independent Variable&(historical cohort study)&study, longitudinal study,\\
&&cohort study)\\
\\[1pt]
\hline
\\[1pt]
Subject Classified on Basis&Case-control study&\\
of Dependent Variable&(case-referent study)&\\
\\[1pt]
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}


-

For now, this is just an answer to your question, since there are better way of obtaining your desired output.

Whenever you terminate a row in a tabular without fully completing it, LaTeX does not insert the necessary vertical lines. This happens in your case when you use \\[1pt]. I've replaced these with & & \\[1pt]. So, even though the cells are empty, you need to note them as existing in order to keep the vertical lines.

Note that it is also not necessary to wrap a tabular inside a table. It doesn't hurt here though.

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\begin{table}
\begin{tabular}{c|c|c}
\hline
\\[1pt]
& \multicolumn{2}{c}{Time of Occurrence of Independent and} \\
& \multicolumn{2}{c}{Dependent Variables} \\
& \multicolumn{1}{c}{} & \\[1pt]
\hline
& & \\[1pt]
& Prior to Initiation of Study&After Initiation of Study \\
& & \\[1pt]
\hline
& & \\[1pt]
Subject Classified on Basis & Retrospective cohort study & Prospective study (follow-up \\
of Independent Variable & (historical cohort study) & study, longitudinal study, \\
& & cohort study) \\
& & \\[1pt]
\hline
& & \\[1pt]
Subject Classified on Basis & Case-control study & \\
of Dependent Variable & (case-referent study) & \\
& & \\[1pt]
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}

-
So, essentially, the spacing command \[1pt] creates a new row which must have, at the very least an & for it to follow the layout {c|c|c}? Also, can you point me in the direction of the better ways to achieve what I was looking for? I'm always interested in learning new techniques. –  Daniel Apr 19 '12 at 3:22