# What is the best way to use quotation mark glyphs?

There are several types of quotation marks in the English language (and in other languages there are even more). There are also several ways in LaTeX to represent these. I have seen editors, that are capable of directly entering and . And I have also seen things like this ''.

So, what is the best way to do English quotation marks in LaTeX?

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A quick summary of the available solutions:

1. Type text'' in your source code to produce “text”, and type text' to produce ‘text’.

2. Using an Unicode editor—and either \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} or XeTeX/LuaTeX—you can simply type “text” or ‘text’ in your code.

3. With the csquotes package, you type \enquote{text}, but you also get loads of other options such as context sensitivity and foreign quotes.

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"foreign" to whom? It's bizarre that people from non-english-speaking countries call non-ascii characters "foreign"! – morbusg Feb 10 '11 at 7:24
@morbusg: well, that's how they are called in the csquotes manual. :) – Juan A. Navarro Feb 10 '11 at 9:42
@morbusg 'foreign' here means 'foreign relative to the default language of the document or local linguistic context'. 'Foreign' might mean British or American just as easily as French or German or anything else. \enquote{} does not mean English, I don't think. I've always taken it to mean 'en' in the sense of 'enmeshed' or 'enclosed', for example. – cfr Apr 25 '15 at 20:59
@cfr: Yeah, that comment from 2011 mayhap been misplaced. – morbusg Apr 26 '15 at 8:01

No discussion of quotation marks in LaTeX is complete without reference to the csquotes package.

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Wow, thanks! (For others: csquotes is a package whose most basic feature is an \enquote{} command that automatically picks quotation marks to suit context, nesting, language style (even British v/s American), and so on, and it has many more great features for quotations.) – ShreevatsaR Jul 29 '10 at 3:20

TeX/LaTeX display the real quotation marks by default:  and  are converted to opening quotation marks; ' and '' are closing quotation marks. You'll generally always see the curved quotes in the output, in the default font. You should always quote like

this''


and not like ''this'' or "this", because that appears like ”this” (closing quotation marks on both sides), and is very annoying to readers. (If you type the double quote character in Emacs, it automatically guesses whether you meant to insert  or ''; other editors probably do too.)

You can also directly enter the curved quote characters if you like, if you're using an environment that supports Unicode input: either \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}, or XeTeX/LuaTeX. See the question on glyph insertion.

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The quote-rules depend on the country you live in, so your examples of "not like..." are not universal. In Finnish, for example, the rule is to use two closing quotation marks ”like so”. – morbusg Feb 10 '11 at 7:21
@morsbug: The question mentions "in the English language" and "English quotation marks". :-) But thanks, I didn't know that about Finnish… I've learnt something new. – ShreevatsaR Feb 10 '11 at 14:59
I wonder why so many people insist on twisting my handle to a variation of the word "bug"... C'mon, it's not funny! You're right though, I missed the last line from OP. – morbusg Feb 10 '11 at 18:36
@mor: Apologies, misread your handle. Did the mistake really seem intentional?! Anyway, I've learnt a lesson, and (in cases where I don't copy-and-paste) I'll use the bare minimum of three letters henceforth. :-) – ShreevatsaR Feb 10 '11 at 18:41

I have always simply used two backticks, , to create an opening quotation mark, and two apostrophe's, '', to create a closing one. In fact, many editors will automatically keep track of which one you need next and enter it if you type the 'regular' quotation mark, ".

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As other answers have pointed out, csquotes is fantastic. Here are three reasons I like csquotes so much.

1. Active quotation marks.
2. Automatic management of nested quotations so that you can pretty much always just say 'quote this' and csquotes will figure out the right thing to do.
3. Quotation marks which adapt automatically to both the global language of the document and, optionally, the local linguistic context, if different.

Here is a demonstration which employs British and American conventions at different points in the document. British conventions are default as that is the default language of the document. However, because autostyle is specified, American conventions are used when this language is active.

\documentclass[american,british]{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{babel}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[autostyle]{csquotes}
\MakeAutoQuote{‘}{’}
\begin{document}
This is an excerpt from Lewis Carroll, \emph{Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in The Complete Works of Lewis Carroll}, The Modern Library: Random House. Pp.~75--76. (Note: no copyright year is included as none is given.):
\begin{quotation}
‘Come, we shall have some fun now!’ thought Alice. ‘I'm glad they've begun asking riddles --- I believe I can guess that,’ she added aloud.

‘Do you mean that you think you can find out the answer to it?’ said the March Hare.

‘Exactly so,’ said Alice.

‘Then you should say what you mean,’ the March Hare went on.

‘I do,’ Alice hastily replied; ‘at least --- at least I mean what I say --- that's the same thing, you know.’

‘Not the same thing a bit!’ said the Hatter. ‘Why, you might just as well say that ‘I see what I eat’ is the same thing as ‘I eat what I see’!’

‘You might just as well say,’ added the March Hare, ‘that ‘I like what I get’ is the same thing as ‘I get what I like’!’

‘You might just as well say,’ added the Dormouse, which seemed to be talking in its sleep, ‘that ‘I breathe when I sleep’ is the same thing as ‘I sleep when I breathe’!’
\end{quotation}

\selectlanguage{american}
Here is the same passage with American conventions:
\begin{quotation}
‘Come, we shall have some fun now!’ thought Alice. ‘I'm glad they've begun asking riddles --- I believe I can guess that,’ she added aloud.

‘Do you mean that you think you can find out the answer to it?’ said the March Hare.

‘Exactly so,’ said Alice.

‘Then you should say what you mean,’ the March Hare went on.

‘I do,’ Alice hastily replied; ‘at least --- at least I mean what I say --- that's the same thing, you know.’

‘Not the same thing a bit!’ said the Hatter. ‘Why, you might just as well say that ‘I see what I eat’ is the same thing as ‘I eat what I see’!’

‘You might just as well say,’ added the March Hare, ‘that ‘I like what I get’ is the same thing as ‘I get what I like’!’

‘You might just as well say,’ added the Dormouse, which seemed to be talking in its sleep, ‘that ‘I breathe when I sleep’ is the same thing as ‘I sleep when I breathe’!’
\end{quotation}

\end{document}


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For giving example:::: someone said, "englishact.com/Quotations/index.php"; – Adam Smith Nov 21 '15 at 10:15

You can make a command to typset quotation marks correctly without installing any packages. Add the following to your preamble:

\newcommand{\q}[1]{#1''}


and then simply type your in-text quote in place of <text> in the following

\q{<text>}


Therefore, your document code should look like

\documentclass{article}
\renewcommand{\q}[1]{#1''}
\begin{document}

Piglet sidled up to Pooh from behind. \q{Pooh?} he whispered.

\q{Yes, Piglet?}

\q{Nothing,} said Piglet, taking Pooh's hand. \q{I just wanted to be sure of you.}

\end{document}


(Quote credit to A.A. Milne from Winnie the Pooh)

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Well, this is one way to do it, but not necessarily the best way, as was asked by the question. To me it seems that what you're suggesting is OK in spirit but in practice this is very heavy handed because you are breaking the standard LaTeX quote` environment. – Andrew Apr 19 '15 at 13:32
Hi, Andrew. Thank you for your feedback. I have adjusted the code accordingly. – Harry Smith Apr 25 '15 at 18:58