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As a follow-up to this thread, I would like to know if it is possible to extend this further to change the citation format depending on whether kanji or romanization is selected.

  • Japanese entries printed in kanji would use proper Japanese quotes and such (ideally, while still printing Ibid. or 前掲 depending on the paper language)

Using the example in that thread:

  • 柳田聖山編『禪學叢書』(中文出版社、1975)、第1巻、1頁。

alongside other entries in English in Chicago format, or whatever:

  • Yanagida Seizan, ed., Zengaku sôsho (Collected Materials for the Study of Zen), Tokyo: Chūbun shuppansha, 1975.

It is my understanding that babel would have to be used since polyglossia has compatibility issues with biblatex.

So, as far as I understand, the language specification in biblatex is for hyphenation, while punctuation is reliant on the main text language using csquotes. Changing punctuation based on the language of the bib entry seems different. Is this possible?

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Not a duplicate, but perhaps relevant: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/21204/… – lockstep May 12 '12 at 13:49

You should include babel package with certain languages specified.

Also, in every .bib-entry you should specify

hyphenation = {language} 

tag. You should use the same language as you specified for babel.

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