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I am using listings to display R code. The matrix multiplication operator shows up partially bold, something like this: "\%\textbf{*\%}". If I separate the * and the %, the second % is not in bold.

I would like to be able to control bolding, but my main concern is consistency. I can live with the multiplication operator in bold or not, but it looks strange for it to be 2/3 in bold.

Here is code to reproduce the problem. At the bottom is a pdf rendering. What am I doing wrong?

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{graphicx,textcomp}
\usepackage{fancyvrb,listings}
\usepackage{pxfonts}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}

\lstloadlanguages{R}
\lstdefinelanguage{Renhanced}[]{R}{%
  morekeywords={acf,ar,arima,arima.sim,colMeans,colSums,is.na,is.null,
    mapply,ms,na.rm,nlmin,replicate,row.names,rowMeans,rowSums,seasonal,
    sys.time,system.time,ts.plot,which.max,which.min},
  deletekeywords={Call, on, codes, I, R, or}
  alsoletter={\%},
  alsoother={\$, \*}
}
\lstset{language=Renhanced,extendedchars=false,
  basicstyle=\small\ttfamily,
  commentstyle=\textsl,
  showstringspaces=false,
  index=[2][keywords], 
  indexstyle=\indexfunction
}

\begin{document}
\lstinline{a * b}

* * 
\begin{lstlisting}
x <- a * b
y <- z %*% a
y <- z % * % a
\end{lstlisting}

\end{document}

Here is an image of the output:

output of code

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1 Answer 1

up vote 1 down vote accepted

Apparently, listings cannot work with this kind of otherkeywords. Maybe this is because the parts of the otherkeyword have to be defined before the full otherkeyword, \%*\% in this case. The only workaround I found was to add \% to the otherkeywords in the original definition before \%*\%, which of course also enables a single % as keyword in the code. Alternatively, you can remove all operators like \%*\% in the definition (it seems that one cannot delete an otherkeyword after the definition of the language).

\lstdefinelanguage{Renhanced}%
  {keywords={abbreviate,abline,abs,acos,acosh,action,add1,add,%
      aggregate,alias,Alias,alist,all,anova,any,aov,aperm,append,apply,%
      approx,approxfun,apropos,Arg,args,array,arrows,as,asin,asinh,%
      atan,atan2,atanh,attach,attr,attributes,autoload,autoloader,ave,%
      axis,backsolve,barplot,basename,besselI,besselJ,besselK,besselY,%
      beta,binomial,body,box,boxplot,break,browser,bug,builtins,bxp,by,%
      c,C,call,Call,case,cat,category,cbind,ceiling,character,char,%
      charmatch,check,chol,chol2inv,choose,chull,class,close,cm,codes,%
      coef,coefficients,co,col,colnames,colors,colours,commandArgs,%
      comment,complete,complex,conflicts,Conj,contents,contour,%
      contrasts,contr,control,helmert,contrib,convolve,cooks,coords,%
      distance,coplot,cor,cos,cosh,count,fields,cov,covratio,wt,CRAN,%
      create,crossprod,cummax,cummin,cumprod,cumsum,curve,cut,cycle,D,%
      data,dataentry,date,dbeta,dbinom,dcauchy,dchisq,de,debug,%
      debugger,Defunct,default,delay,delete,deltat,demo,de,density,%
      deparse,dependencies,Deprecated,deriv,description,detach,%
      dev2bitmap,dev,cur,deviance,off,prev,,dexp,df,dfbetas,dffits,%
      dgamma,dgeom,dget,dhyper,diag,diff,digamma,dim,dimnames,dir,%
      dirname,dlnorm,dlogis,dnbinom,dnchisq,dnorm,do,dotplot,double,%
      download,dpois,dput,drop,drop1,dsignrank,dt,dummy,dump,dunif,%
      duplicated,dweibull,dwilcox,dyn,edit,eff,effects,eigen,else,%
      emacs,end,environment,env,erase,eval,equal,evalq,example,exists,%
      exit,exp,expand,expression,External,extract,extractAIC,factor,%
      fail,family,fft,file,filled,find,fitted,fivenum,fix,floor,for,%
      For,formals,format,formatC,formula,Fortran,forwardsolve,frame,%
      frequency,ftable,ftable2table,function,gamma,Gamma,gammaCody,%
      gaussian,gc,gcinfo,gctorture,get,getenv,geterrmessage,getOption,%
      getwd,gl,glm,globalenv,gnome,GNOME,graphics,gray,grep,grey,grid,%
      gsub,hasTsp,hat,heat,help,hist,home,hsv,httpclient,I,identify,if,%
      ifelse,Im,image,\%in\%,index,influence,measures,inherits,install,%
      installed,integer,interaction,interactive,Internal,intersect,%
      inverse,invisible,IQR,is,jitter,kappa,kronecker,labels,lapply,%
      layout,lbeta,lchoose,lcm,legend,length,levels,lgamma,library,%
      licence,license,lines,list,lm,load,local,locator,log,log10,log1p,%
      log2,logical,loglin,lower,lowess,ls,lsfit,lsf,ls,machine,Machine,%
      mad,mahalanobis,make,link,margin,match,Math,matlines,mat,matplot,%
      matpoints,matrix,max,mean,median,memory,menu,merge,methods,min,%
      missing,Mod,mode,model,response,mosaicplot,mtext,mvfft,na,nan,%
      names,omit,nargs,nchar,ncol,NCOL,new,next,NextMethod,nextn,%
      nlevels,nlm,noquote,NotYetImplemented,NotYetUsed,nrow,NROW,null,%
      numeric,\%o\%,objects,offset,old,on,Ops,optim,optimise,optimize,%
      options,or,order,ordered,outer,package,packages,page,pairlist,%
      pairs,palette,panel,par,parent,parse,paste,path,pbeta,pbinom,%
      pcauchy,pchisq,pentagamma,persp,pexp,pf,pgamma,pgeom,phyper,pico,%
      pictex,piechart,Platform,plnorm,plogis,plot,pmatch,pmax,pmin,%
      pnbinom,pnchisq,pnorm,points,poisson,poly,polygon,polyroot,pos,%
      postscript,power,ppoints,ppois,predict,preplot,pretty,Primitive,%
      print,prmatrix,proc,prod,profile,proj,prompt,prop,provide,%
      psignrank,ps,pt,ptukey,punif,pweibull,pwilcox,q,qbeta,qbinom,%
      qcauchy,qchisq,qexp,qf,qgamma,qgeom,qhyper,qlnorm,qlogis,qnbinom,%
      qnchisq,qnorm,qpois,qqline,qqnorm,qqplot,qr,Q,qty,qy,qsignrank,%
      qt,qtukey,quantile,quasi,quit,qunif,quote,qweibull,qwilcox,%
      rainbow,range,rank,rbeta,rbind,rbinom,rcauchy,rchisq,Re,read,csv,%
      csv2,fwf,readline,socket,real,Recall,rect,reformulate,regexpr,%
      relevel,remove,rep,repeat,replace,replications,report,require,%
      resid,residuals,restart,return,rev,rexp,rf,rgamma,rgb,rgeom,R,%
      rhyper,rle,rlnorm,rlogis,rm,rnbinom,RNGkind,rnorm,round,row,%
      rownames,rowsum,rpois,rsignrank,rstandard,rstudent,rt,rug,runif,%
      rweibull,rwilcox,sample,sapply,save,scale,scan,scan,screen,sd,se,%
      search,searchpaths,segments,seq,sequence,setdiff,setequal,set,%
      setwd,show,sign,signif,sin,single,sinh,sink,solve,sort,source,%
      spline,splinefun,split,sqrt,stars,start,stat,stem,step,stop,%
      storage,strstrheight,stripplot,strsplit,structure,strwidth,sub,%
      subset,substitute,substr,substring,sum,summary,sunflowerplot,svd,%
      sweep,switch,symbol,symbols,symnum,sys,status,system,t,table,%
      tabulate,tan,tanh,tapply,tempfile,terms,terrain,tetragamma,text,%
      time,title,topo,trace,traceback,transform,tri,trigamma,trunc,try,%
      ts,tsp,typeof,unclass,undebug,undoc,union,unique,uniroot,unix,%
      unlink,unlist,unname,untrace,update,upper,url,UseMethod,var,%
      variable,vector,Version,vi,warning,warnings,weighted,weights,%
      which,while,window,write,\%x\%,x11,X11,xedit,xemacs,xinch,xor,%
      xpdrows,xy,xyinch,yinch,zapsmall,zip},%
   otherkeywords={!,!=,~,$,*,\%,\&,\%/\%,\%*\%,\%\%,<-,<<-,_,/},%
   alsoother={._$},%
   sensitive,%
   morecomment=[l]\#,%
   morestring=[d]",%
   morestring=[d]'% 2001 Robert Denham
  }%
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thank you very much, this fixes the problem in my example and document. I'm really surprised that lots of people haven't run into this problem. –  rmcd Jul 8 '12 at 3:12
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