# Chicago-style citations of CJK documents (e.g. American Oriental Society): Name order; transcribed/translated titles

Is there a way to produce Chicago-style citations of material written in Chinese, Japanese, for an English-language paper using biblatex-chicago?

I want to produce a citation that looks like:

Li Wuwei 李无未, Riben Hanyu yinyun xue shi 日本汉语音韵学史 (History of the study of Chinese phonology in Japan) (Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan, 2011)

Right now, I'm able to produce a reference that looks like this using biblatex-chicago:

Li Wuwei [李无未], Riben Hanyu yinyun xue shi, 日本汉语音韵学史 [History of the study of Chinese phonology in Japan] (Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan, 2011)

My .bib entry looks like:

@book{Liwuwei2011,
Author = {{Li Wuwei}}, %Author as institution not individual
Publisher = {Shangwu yinshuguan},
Title = {Riben Hanyu yinyun xue shi},
usere = {History of the study of Chinese phonology in Japan},
Year = {2011}}


The problem is not the square brackets around the Chinese name and title, but

(1) the fact that the name now is not parsed as a name (if it were, it would be listed in the footnote as "Wuwei Li," and in the final bibliography as "Li, Wuwei," which is incorrect), but treated as one word. This means I cannot make the style cite the reference simply as

Li, Riben

but only

Li Wuwei, Riben

in subsequent citations. Dominic Yu (http://blyt.net/blog/2009/11/bibtex-and-chinese-names.html) kindly showed me how to solve this with bibtex. I wonder if there is a solution for biblatex-chicago?

The second problem is:

(2) The comma

Riben Hanyu yinyun xue shi, 日本汉语音韵学史

between the transcribed title and the original title. Is there a way I can get rid of that in the reference?

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

-
Next to the author field, you have the remark Author as institution not individual. Have you tried setting the field's value to {Li, Wuwei} (instead of {{Li Wuwei}})? I'm afraid I don't have the required fonts and hence can't check out directly if this suggestion might help. –  Mico Aug 11 '12 at 11:21
Thank you for your suggestion. If I write the name as {Li, Wuwei}, it will be "Wuwei Li" in the footnote, and "Li, Wuwei" in the bibliography. However, convention has it that the name should be "Li Wuwei" in both footnote and bibliography, and, possibly "Li" in short, subsequent citations. –  Mårten Aug 12 '12 at 2:39
Thanks for providing this clarification. It appears that @Audrey's answer -- which provides a new method for rendering a person's name, besides the Western/default and "institution as individual" ways -- is the correct way to proceed. –  Mico Aug 12 '12 at 11:12

For problem (1), the nameaddon field can hold the CJK name for only a single author. This approach is no good for works by multiple authors and name lists in other fields, such as editor. One way around this is to reserve the name affix for the CJK name:

author = {Li, 李无未, Wuwei and Keane, Michael}


and modify the name formatting directives. This is somewhat awkward and you'll have to characterize "real" name affixes in order to properly format names like "Robert Griffin III" and "Lon Chaney Junior". A rudimentary \ifnameaffix test is used in the example below.

For problem (2), using the titleaddon field for the CJK title is probably the way to go for biblatex-chicago styles. Punctuation between the title and the title add-on is tangled up in a bunch of different formats, drivers and macros. One possible way out is to use \nopunct in the title formatting directives.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{xeCJK}
\setCJKmainfont{SimSun}
% Sets uniquelist=minyear and uniquename=minfull
\usepackage[authordate,backend=biber,bibencoding=utf8]{biblatex-chicago}

% List of name affixes excluding Roman numerals

\newcommand{\ifnameaffix}[1]{%
\ifboolexpr{ test {\ifrmnum{#1}} or test {\ifinlist{#1}{\nameaffixlist}} }}

% Based on definitions from biblatex.def
\DeclareNameFormat{labelname}{%
\ifboolexpr{ test {\ifblank{#7}} or test {\ifnameaffix{#7}} }
{\ifcase\value{uniquename}%
\usebibmacro{name:last}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}%
\or
\ifuseprefix
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#4}{#5}{#8}}
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#4}{#6}{#8}}%
\or
\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}%
\fi}%
{\ifnumequal{\value{uniquename}}{0}%
{\usebibmacro{name:cjk}{#1}{}{}}
{\usebibmacro{name:cjk}{#1}{#3}{}}}%
\usebibmacro{name:andothers}}

\DeclareNameFormat{first-last}{%
\ifboolexpr{ test {\ifblank{#7}} or test {\ifnameaffix{#7}} }
{\iffirstinits
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#4}{#5}{#7}}
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}}}
{\usebibmacro{name:cjk}{#1}{#3}{#7}}%
\usebibmacro{name:andothers}}

\DeclareNameFormat{last-first}{%
\ifboolexpr{ test {\ifblank{#7}} or test {\ifnameaffix{#7}} }
{\iffirstinits
{\usebibmacro{name:last-first}{#1}{#4}{#5}{#7}}
{\usebibmacro{name:last-first}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}}}
{\usebibmacro{name:cjk}{#1}{#3}{#7}}%
\usebibmacro{name:andothers}}

\DeclareNameFormat{last-first/first-last}{%
\ifboolexpr{ test {\ifblank{#7}} or test {\ifnameaffix{#7}} }
{\ifnumequal{\value{listcount}}{1}
{\iffirstinits
{\usebibmacro{name:last-first}{#1}{#4}{#5}{#7}}
{\usebibmacro{name:last-first}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}}%
\ifblank{#3#5}
{}
{\usebibmacro{name:revsdelim}}}
{\iffirstinits
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#4}{#5}{#7}}
{\usebibmacro{name:first-last}{#1}{#3}{#5}{#7}}}}
{\usebibmacro{name:cjk}{#1}{#3}{#7}}%
\usebibmacro{name:andothers}}

\newbibmacro*{name:cjk}[3]{%
\usebibmacro{name:delim}{#2#3#1}%
\usebibmacro{name:hook}{#2#3#1}%
\mkbibnamelast{#1}%
\ifblank{#2}{}{\bibnamedelimd\mkbibnamefirst{#2}}%
\ifblank{#3}{}{\bibnamedelimd\mkbibnameaffix{#3}}}

% Based on definitions from biblatex-chicago cbx
\DeclareFieldFormat[book]{title}{%
\mkbibemph{#1}%

\DeclareFieldFormat{booktitle}{%
\mkbibemph{#1}%

\DeclareFieldFormat{maintitle}{%
\mkbibemph{#1}%

\DeclareFieldFormat[article]{title}{%
\iffieldundef{title}{}{\mkbibquote{#1}}%

\DeclareFieldFormat{usere}{\mkbibparens{#1}}

\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib}
@book{zhaos,
title={A Nation-State by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism},
author={Zhao, Suisheng},
isbn={9780804750011},
year={2004},
publisher={Stanford University Press}}
@article{zhaoj,
author = {Zhao, 赵杰, Jie},
title = {Qingdai Manwen de wenzi tese ji yinyun, yinbian tedian},
usere = {Scriptual specificities of Manchu writing in the Qing period
and characteristics of phonology and sound change},
shorttitle = {Manwen de wenzi tese},
journal = {Manzu yanjiu},
volume = {102},
number = {1},
date = {2011},
pages = {7--12}}
@book{li,
author = {Li, 李无未, Wuwei and Brown, Junior, Bob and Doe, III, John},
publisher = {Shangwu yinshuguan},
title = {Riben Hanyu yinyun xue shi},
usere = {History of the study of Chinese phonology in Japan},
date = {2011}}
\end{filecontents}

\begin{document}
\noindent
\textcite{li,zhaos,zhaoj} \\
\citeauthor{li,zhaos,zhaoj} \\
\fullcite{li,zhaos,zhaoj}
\printbibliography
\end{document}


A few notes:

• CJK names are not responsive to firstinits, but it is straightforward to make them so.
• Name disambiguation only considers the first and last parts of a person's name, not the affix. This is convenient for handling two ambiguous CJK names, but perhaps not ideal for ambiguities between CJK and non-CJK names (see the example).
• The name affix approach redefines generic formatting directives from biblatex.def. So it should work for a variety of styles.
• The formatting changes to handle the title add-on approach are very specific to biblatex-chicago. They have little use in other styles.
-
This looks great thank you so much! I will try it out immediately; but, where do I put the second string of code? Not in the document preamble? –  Mårten Aug 12 '12 at 3:33
Oh I also got it to work by putting it at the end of the preamble, so I deleted my comment before I saw this. Thank you so much, the reference produced looks perfect, this will be very helpful for anybody working in East Asian history/literature. –  Mårten Aug 12 '12 at 5:22
@Mårten No problem. You may have noticed that the notes style sets an extraneous comma after the leading reversed name in a two-person list: "Last1, First1, and First2 Last2". If that isn't by-design you might want to contact the biblatex-chicago author. –  Audrey Aug 23 '12 at 16:09
@Mårten I forgot to mention that there are plans to better support multilingual documents. Probably not in the very near future, but it will likely be the next major feature introduced into biblatex+biber. –  Audrey Oct 3 '12 at 23:51
That is great news! I think many people in Asian studies would benefit from it. When it happens, is it likely that I will have to reformat all the biblatex entries in my database? –  Mårten Oct 4 '12 at 3:45