At a bare minimum, your LaTeX source file needs to contain these elements for
\citeauthor to work:
author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittlebach and Alexander Samarin",
title = "The LaTeX Companion",
year = "1993",
publisher = "Addison-Wesley",
address = "Reading, Massachusetts"
The correct compilation cycle for the document is then as follows:
The first compilation generates the list of cited works for BibTeX. Then BibTeX uses that information to generate a
.bbl file from
doc.bib containing all of the citations formatted according to the bibliography style you choose. The second compilation incorporates the
.bbl into the document, and the third compilation updates all of the cross-references (e.g. citations).
Here is the output for the example above: