# How to embed citations into footnotes? [closed]

How can I put a reference at the bottom of the page to something that I'm using? I need to do this the European way: so I want to place a small number at the end of the sentence that stands higher than the rest of the text. And at the bottom of the page, a horizontal line with the reference text/content.

So how can I do these two things?

• Tiny numbers at the end of a sentence;
• Reference at the bottom of the page with horizontal line on top.

Here's an example of what I mean.

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Use the \footnote command: text text\footnote{the footnote text}. – Gonzalo Medina Sep 1 '12 at 19:49
@Sled Do you mean a footnote, as suggested, or some form of citation? – Joseph Wright Sep 1 '12 at 19:59
Footnotes are described in section 2.9 of lshort. If you mean citations in fotnotes, please clarify your question. – lockstep Sep 1 '12 at 20:00
I updated my post with an example of what I mean. It also show the tiny number I was talking about – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 20:07
@Sled then my comment gives you the answer; use \footnote as shown in my previous comment. – Gonzalo Medina Sep 1 '12 at 20:21

## closed as too localized by lockstep, Marco Daniel, Gonzalo Medina, percusse, Claudio FiandrinoSep 5 '12 at 8:02

This question is unlikely to help any future visitors; it is only relevant to a small geographic area, a specific moment in time, or an extraordinarily narrow situation that is not generally applicable to the worldwide audience of the internet. For help making this question more broadly applicable, see the FAQ.

Your question is actually about two things: How to produce a footnote, and how to embed a citation to a reference (here: an URL) into such a note.

Footnotes are produced with the standard LaTeX command \footnote{<Some text>}. LaTeX will add a superscript number at the position in the running text where you used \footnote, and will add the same number plus <Some text> at the bottom of the page. It will also add a rule to separate the actual notes from the running text.

To embed a citation into a footnote, you could simply write the appropriate text in the argument of \footnote. Another way that is suitable if you have a lot of references is to write them into a separate data file (in a special format called .bib) and to use specialized LaTeX packages (e.g., biblatex) to extract the data and integrate them into your main document -- e.g., in the form of footnotes.

In the following example, I'm using a data file called myreferences.bib that contains a data entry for the very question you asked -- the title, the year, and the URL. The entry is of the type @online and has the key foo12 (you could call it however you want). In your .tex file (and with the help of the biblatex package), I use the command \footcite{foo12} which will produce a footnote reference to your question. (Because I chose style=verbose, the full data will be printed; other styles would produce only an excerpt.) The \printbibliography command is used to produce the full data of all referenced entries at the end of the document.

EDIT: One more (still fairly basic) thing: The example must be compiled not only with (pdf)LaTeX, but with (pdf)LaTeX -- biber -- (pdf)LaTeX. Most editors suitable for LaTeX will offer automatic ways to do the necessary compilation steps.

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage[style=verbose]{biblatex}

\usepackage{filecontents}% to embed the file myreferences.bib in your .tex file

\begin{filecontents}{myrefrences.bib}
@online{foo12,
year = {2012},
title = {footnote-reference-using-european-system},
url = {http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/69716/footnote-reference-using-european-system},
}
\end{filecontents}

\begin{document}

\null\vfill% to make the text height smaller for the example

\section{First section}

Some text.\footnote{Some text in a footnote.} Some more text.\footcite{foo12}

\printbibliography

\end{document}


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Thanks a lot for explaining in such detail! – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 21:48
One more question: any idea why a long URL wouldn't be hyphenated in the \footnote{}? One URL is working fine but I have another one that is totally ignoring my pagemargins. I can't see any obvious difference between the URl's. – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 21:59
@Sled URLs are tricky to hyphenat, but biblatex knows a lot of tricks. If a particular URL fails to hyphenate, that's really stuff for a separate question (though I would at least try to not escape the # sign in your case). – lockstep Sep 1 '12 at 22:00
Without escaping the # sign it was giving compilation errors, but I fixed it by manually adding a - – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 22:10