TeX - LaTeX Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of TeX, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and related typesetting systems. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

How can I put a reference at the bottom of the page to something that I'm using? I need to do this the European way: so I want to place a small number at the end of the sentence that stands higher than the rest of the text. And at the bottom of the page, a horizontal line with the reference text/content.

So how can I do these two things?

  • Tiny numbers at the end of a sentence;
  • Reference at the bottom of the page with horizontal line on top.

Here's an example of what I mean.

enter image description here

share|improve this question

closed as too localized by lockstep, Marco Daniel, Gonzalo Medina, percusse, Claudio Fiandrino Sep 5 '12 at 8:02

This question is unlikely to help any future visitors; it is only relevant to a small geographic area, a specific moment in time, or an extraordinarily narrow situation that is not generally applicable to the worldwide audience of the internet. For help making this question more broadly applicable, visit the help center.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

Use the \footnote command: text text\footnote{the footnote text}. – Gonzalo Medina Sep 1 '12 at 19:49
Footnotes are described in section 2.9 of lshort. If you mean citations in fotnotes, please clarify your question. – lockstep Sep 1 '12 at 20:00
@Sled then my comment gives you the answer; use \footnote as shown in my previous comment. – Gonzalo Medina Sep 1 '12 at 20:21
It should be noted that the justification for closing this question is bad. Sled asked an honest question for a real problem: how does one create footnotes in TeX? The only thing was, he didn't know that TeX has an automatic way of handling this, so he described it explicitly. To think that no one else would ever ask a similar beginner question is ridiculous. At most, this question should be marked as a duplicate and pointed toward an existing question describing how to make footnote citations. – Jess Riedel Jun 15 '15 at 14:23
Better practice would have been to put a temp hold on this question, ask Sled for clarifying details, and then answer his question (as lockstep has graciously done in detail) without closing it. – Jess Riedel Jun 15 '15 at 14:25
up vote 17 down vote accepted

Your question is actually about two things: How to produce a footnote, and how to embed a citation to a reference (here: an URL) into such a note.

Footnotes are produced with the standard LaTeX command \footnote{<Some text>}. LaTeX will add a superscript number at the position in the running text where you used \footnote, and will add the same number plus <Some text> at the bottom of the page. It will also add a rule to separate the actual notes from the running text.

To embed a citation into a footnote, you could simply write the appropriate text in the argument of \footnote. Another way that is suitable if you have a lot of references is to write them into a separate data file (in a special format called .bib) and to use specialized LaTeX packages (e.g., biblatex) to extract the data and integrate them into your main document -- e.g., in the form of footnotes.

In the following example, I'm using a data file called myreferences.bib that contains a data entry for the very question you asked -- the title, the year, and the URL. The entry is of the type @online and has the key foo12 (you could call it however you want). In your .tex file (and with the help of the biblatex package), I use the command \footcite{foo12} which will produce a footnote reference to your question. (Because I chose style=verbose, the full data will be printed; other styles would produce only an excerpt.) The \printbibliography command is used to produce the full data of all referenced entries at the end of the document.

EDIT: One more (still fairly basic) thing: The example must be compiled not only with (pdf)LaTeX, but with (pdf)LaTeX -- biber -- (pdf)LaTeX. Most editors suitable for LaTeX will offer automatic ways to do the necessary compilation steps.



\usepackage{filecontents}% to embed the file `myreferences.bib` in your `.tex` file

  year = {2012},
  title = {footnote-reference-using-european-system},
  url = {http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/69716/footnote-reference-using-european-system},

% File is created and written to disk by the above package


\null\vfill% to make the text height smaller for the example

\section{First section}

Some text.\footnote{Some text in a footnote.} Some more text.\footcite{foo12}



enter image description here

share|improve this answer
Thanks a lot for explaining in such detail! – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 21:48
One more question: any idea why a long URL wouldn't be hyphenated in the \footnote{}? One URL is working fine but I have another one that is totally ignoring my pagemargins. I can't see any obvious difference between the URl's. – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 21:59
@Sled URLs are tricky to hyphenat, but biblatex knows a lot of tricks. If a particular URL fails to hyphenate, that's really stuff for a separate question (though I would at least try to not escape the # sign in your case). – lockstep Sep 1 '12 at 22:00
Without escaping the # sign it was giving compilation errors, but I fixed it by manually adding a - – Sled Sep 1 '12 at 22:10

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.