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Question:

Why in the example below I get (with CM at 10pt) \alphabet=342.93138pt and \myalphabetwidth=342.6536pt why I have this difference between the two measures? What is the more correct?

\documentclass{book}

\RequirePackage{xparse}
\RequirePackage{siunitx}
\RequirePackage{environ}
\RequirePackage{booktabs}

% **********************************************************
\ExplSyntaxOn
% **********************************************************

\bool_new:N \g_has_run_bool
\tl_new:N \l_aw_text_tl
\int_new:N \l_aw_tot_int
\int_new:N \g_aw_tot_alph_int
\int_new:N \g_wid_space_int
\int_new:N \g_space_int
\fp_new:N \g_rat_space_int
\fp_new:N \g_aw_avg_width_fp
\dim_new:N \myalphabetwidth
\dim_new:N \mytextwidth
\input{\jobname.aux}
\tl_const:Nx \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ,.;?()!' \token_to_str:N :}

% this can be changed to an evironment or renamed or whatever
\NewDocumentCommand {\avgwidthstart} {}
  {
    \aw_avg_width:w
  }

\NewDocumentCommand {\avgwidthend}{}{}

% Here is the environment version, using just "text" as a name is probably a bad idea.
\NewEnviron{textcount}
{
  \expandafter\avgwidthstart\BODY\avgwidthend
}

\cs_new:Npn \aw_avg_width:w #1 \avgwidthend
  {
    % if first run, then generate variables to be used
    \bool_if:NF \g_has_run_bool
      {
        \tl_map_inline:Nn \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl
        {
          \int_new:c {g_##1_int}
          \fp_new:c {g_rat_##1_fp}
          \fp_new:c {g_wid_##1_fp}
        }
      }
    \tl_set:Nn \l_aw_text_tl {#1}

    % this can be used rather than the preceding line to take capital 
    % letters into account, but is Slooooooow
    %\tl_set:Nx \l_aw_text_tl {\tl_expandable_lowercase:n {#1}}

    \int_set:Nn \l_aw_tot_int {\tl_count:N \l_aw_text_tl}
    \tl_map_function:NN \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl \aw_get_counts:n
    \deal_with_spaces:n {#1}
    \tl_map_function:NN \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl \aw_calc_ratios:n
    \tl_map_function:NN \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl \aw_calc_avg_width:n
    \fp_gset_eq:NN \g_aw_avg_width_fp \l_tmpa_fp
    \fp_zero:N \l_tmpa_fp

    % the dimension \myalphabetwidth gives the width of the alphabet based on your character freq,
    % can be accessed by \the\myalphabetwidth
    \dim_gset:Nn \myalphabetwidth {\fp_to_dim:n {\fp_eval:n {61*\g_aw_avg_width_fp}}}

    % the dimension \mytextwidth gives the recommended \textwidth based on 66 chars per line.
    % can be accessed by \the\mytextwidth
    \dim_gset:Nn \mytextwidth {\fp_to_dim:n {\fp_eval:n {66*\g_aw_avg_width_fp}}}
    \protected@write\@mainaux{}{\mytextwidth=\the\mytextwidth}
    \bool_gset_true:N \g_has_run_bool

    % and lastly print the content
    #1
  }

\cs_new:Npn \aw_get_counts:n #1
  {
    % make a temporary token list from the document body 
    \tl_set_eq:NN \l_tmpb_tl \l_aw_text_tl
    % remove all occurrences of the character
    \tl_remove_all:Nn \l_tmpb_tl {#1}
    % add to appropriate int the number of occurrences of that character in current block
    \int_set:Nn \l_tmpa_int {\int_eval:n{\l_aw_tot_int -\tl_count:N \l_tmpb_tl}}
    % add to appropriate int the number of occurrences of that character in current block
    \int_gadd:cn {g_#1_int} {\l_tmpa_int}
    % add this to the total
    \int_gadd:Nn \g_aw_tot_alph_int {\l_tmpa_int}
  }

\cs_new:Npn \deal_with_spaces:n #1
  {
    \tl_set:Nn \l_tmpa_tl {#1}
    % rescan body with spaces as characters
    \tl_set_rescan:Nnn \l_tmpb_tl {\char_set_catcode_letter:N \ }{#1}
    % find number of new characters introduced.  add to number of spaces and alph chars
    \int_set:Nn \l_tmpa_int {\tl_count:N \l_tmpb_tl -\tl_count:N \l_tmpa_tl}
    \int_gadd:Nn \g_space_int {\l_tmpa_int}
    \int_gadd:Nn \g_aw_tot_alph_int {\l_tmpa_int}
    % since this comes after the rest of chars are dealt with, tot_alph is final total
    \fp_set:Nn \g_rat_space_fp {\g_space_int/\g_aw_tot_alph_int}
    % get width of space and use it.  obviously space is stretchable, so i'll assume
    % that the expansions and contractions cancel one another over large text.  is this
    % a terrible assumption???
    \hbox_set:Nn \l_tmpa_box {\ }
    \fp_gset:Nn \g_wid_space_fp {\dim_to_fp:n {\box_wd:N \l_tmpa_box}}
    \fp_add:Nn \l_tmpa_fp {\g_wid_space_fp*\g_rat_space_fp}
  }

\cs_new:Npn \aw_calc_ratios:n #1
  {
    % divide number of occurrences of char by total alphabetic chars
    \fp_gset:cn {g_rat_#1_fp}{{\int_use:c {g_#1_int}}/\g_aw_tot_alph_int}
  }

\cs_new:Npn \aw_calc_avg_width:n #1
  {
    % only need to find char widths once
    \bool_if:NF \g_has_run_bool
      {
        % find width of char box
        \hbox_set:Nn \l_tmpa_box {#1}
        \fp_gset:cn {g_wid_#1_fp}{\dim_to_fp:n {\box_wd:N \l_tmpa_box}}
      }
    % multiply it by char frequency and add to avg width
    \fp_add:Nn \l_tmpa_fp {{\fp_use:c {g_wid_#1_fp}}*{\fp_use:c {g_rat_#1_fp}}}
  }
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% This part is just for fun. Delete it and the showtable command from the document if
% it isn't wanted
    \newlength{\alphabet}%
    \settowidth{\alphabet}{\normalfont abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ,.;?()!':}%
\tl_new:N \l_aw_tab_rows_tl
\seq_new:N \g_aw_theor_rats_seq
\seq_new:N \g_aw_the_alphabet_seq

\seq_gset_split:Nnn \g_aw_theor_rats_seq {,}
{0.0651738,0.0124248,0.0217339,0.0349835,0.1041442,0.0197881,0.0158610,0.0492888,0.0558094,0.0009033,0.0050529,0.0331490,0.0202124,0.0564513,0.0596302,0.0137645,0.0008606,0.0497563,0.0515760,0.0729357,0.0225134,0.0082903,0.0171272,0.0013692,0.0145984,0.0007836,0.1918182}

\NewDocumentCommand {\showtable}{}
    {
      \clearpage
      \aw_make_table:
    }

\cs_generate_variant:Nn \seq_set_split:Nnn {NnV}
\cs_new:Npn \aw_make_table:
    {
      \thispagestyle{empty}
      \seq_set_split:NnV \g_aw_the_alphabet_seq {} \c_aw_the_alphabet_tl
      %takes corresponding letter/theoretical ratio pairs from sequences and applies function
      \seq_mapthread_function:NNN \g_aw_the_alphabet_seq \g_aw_theor_rats_seq \aw_generate_row:nn
      \begin{table}[h]
      \centering
      \sisetup{round-mode = places,round-precision = 5,output-decimal-marker={,},table-format = 3.5}
      \begin{tabular}{llll}
        \toprule
        {Average\,\texttt{\textbackslash textwidth}}&{Average\,character\,width}&{Average\,alphabet\,width}&{Alphabet\,width}\\
        \midrule
        \the\mytextwidth&\fp_eval:n {round(\g_aw_avg_width_fp,5)}pt&\the\myalphabetwidth&\the\alphabet\\
        \bottomrule
      \end{tabular}\par
      \end{table}
      \vfil
      \begin{center}
        Total\,characters\,=\,\fp_eval:n {\g_aw_tot_alph_int}
      \end{center}
      \[%
        \mathrm{Total\,line\,type}=\frac{\fp_eval:n {\g_aw_tot_alph_int}\cdot \fp_eval:n {round(\g_aw_avg_width_fp,5)}\mathrm{pt}}{\fp_eval:n {\g_aw_tot_alph_int*{round(\g_aw_avg_width_fp,5)}/({\g_aw_tot_alph_int}/66)}\mathrm{pt}}=\fp_eval:n {\g_aw_tot_alph_int/66}
      \]
      \vfil
      \begin{table}[h]
      \centering
      \sisetup{round-mode = places,round-precision = 5,output-decimal-marker={,},table-format = 3.5}
      \begin{tabular}{cSSS}
        \toprule
        {Letter}&{Actual}&{Theoretical}&{Difference}\\
        \midrule
        spaces&\fp_eval:n {\g_rat_space_fp*100}\%&19.18182\%&\fp_eval:n {{\g_rat_space_fp*100-19.18182}}\%\\
        \tl_use:N \l_aw_tab_rows_tl
        \bottomrule
      \end{tabular}\par
      \end{table}
    }

\cs_new:Npn \aw_generate_row:nn #1#2
    {
      \tl_put_right:Nn \l_aw_tab_rows_tl {#1&}
      \tl_put_right:Nx \l_aw_tab_rows_tl {\fp_eval:n {100*{\fp_use:c {g_rat_#1_fp}}}\%&}
      \tl_put_right:Nn \l_aw_tab_rows_tl {\fp_eval:n{100*{#2}}\%&}
      \tl_put_right:Nx \l_aw_tab_rows_tl {\fp_eval:n {{\fp_use:c {g_rat_#1_fp}*100-\fp_eval:n {#2}*100}}\%}
      \tl_put_right:Nn \l_aw_tab_rows_tl {\\}
    }

% **********************************************************
\ExplSyntaxOff
% **********************************************************


\begin{document}

\avgwidthstart
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ,.;?()!':%
\avgwidthend

\the\myalphabetwidth

\the\alphabet

\end{document}

Update:

I don't want total width of a particular string. My example is only a way to test the macro. I have try to compare the two measures of the same string to check the performance of the macro, that is for the calculation of the character frequencies into the document (on the normal text of the document) and than get the average alphabet width and use it to set the \textwidth.

Because you have say: "I don't understand the question." I try to re-explain it:

My question is:

There is a way to say at the macro: if you found some certain characters add at the total count of the width, the inter-letter kerns for those characters? Where the value are taken from the metric of the used font. For example, the first \hbox (that you have show me, that is the \alphabet) take into the count the inter-letter kerns there is a way to put that, also into the final count of the macro?

share|improve this question
1  
The question is meaningless: kerns are inserted between specific pairs of characters. –  egreg Sep 14 '12 at 17:45
    
as I said earlier if you want the width including ligatures and kerns just take the total width of the string, there is no point measuring each character, you may still loop to count characters to get the average (but in anycase it is a bizare way to determine text width, guidelines like 70 characters per line are a rough order of magnitude hint, not a precise rule to be implemented) –  David Carlisle Sep 14 '12 at 18:52
    
@DavidCarlisle Thanks both, and sorry for my ignorance.. –  FormlessCloud Sep 14 '12 at 20:12
add comment

1 Answer

up vote 2 down vote accepted

Your code isn't that clear but the values you get are consistent with the two boxes in

\documentclass{article}

\showoutput


\begin{document}

\hbox{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ,.;?()!':}

\hbox{{a}{b}{c}{d}{e}{f}{g}{h}{i}{j}{k}{l}{m}{n}{o}{p}{q}{r}{s}{t}{u}{v}{w}{x}{y}{z}{A}{B}{C}{D}{E}{F}{G}{H}{I}{J}{K}{L}{M}{N}{O}{P}{Q}{R}{S}{T}{U}{V}{W}{X}{Y}{Z}{,}{.}{;}{?}{(}{)}{!}{'}{:}}

\end{document}

which have sizes

...\hbox(7.5+2.5)x342.93138
...\hbox(7.5+2.5)x342.6536

Note the first one has several inter-letter kerns.


So the value 342.93138pt is the width of that string if set with cmr10, whereas 342.6536pt is the width of the second expression, or equivalently the sum of the widths of the individual characters. the log file shows you where the difference comes from for example the log of the first box shows

....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 b
....\kern0.27779
....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 c

which means that the cmr10 font metrics specify that a kern of width 0.27779pt be added if a b and c are adjacent, similarly

....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 p
....\kern0.27779
....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 q

and

....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 F
....\kern-0.27779
....\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 G

which happens to be the full set, so two positive adjustments and one negative totaling 0.27779pt.

Which is correct depends which question you want answering. It isn't clear why you would want to ask either question. If the width is for determining page geometry then a more interesting average would be an average width of a typical natural language text.

share|improve this answer
    
I have fixed my question ! ;) –  FormlessCloud Sep 14 '12 at 10:14
    
Sorry, but I don't understand your answer, I have not understand from what is give the difference between the two measures and how can i fix the macro... –  FormlessCloud Sep 14 '12 at 10:19
    
The problem are the inter-letter kerns? that is little spaces between letters? –  FormlessCloud Sep 14 '12 at 10:25
    
further comments added to the answer. –  David Carlisle Sep 14 '12 at 10:32
    
Yes a kern (in this context) is an automatic space added by the typesetter from values specified in the font metrics to avoid big gaps in things like AV as opposed to A V –  David Carlisle Sep 14 '12 at 10:39
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