inputenc package, even with the
utf8 option doesn't load all the Unicode tables. It loads only those for which it knows it will have to typeset some glyphs.
You have then to teach the proper environment, because each Unicode block requires a different TeX fonts (they have only 256 characters).
So your example works with
pdflatex, but modified into the following code.
This is admittedly largely impractical for extensive usage of characters belonging to different blocks, so it may be advisable to switch to XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX that can use OpenType fonts.