# How do I remove white space before or after the figures and tables?

Whenever my figure or table has to move to the next page it is placed exactly at the center of the page, and thus occupies the whole page by itself. I tried all the combination in:

\begin{figure}[htb]


having failed, I tried this one

\usepackage{float}
.
.

\begin{figure}[H]


This kind of work, but again whenever the figure has to be placed on the next page, the previous page has white spaces between the section heading and the paragraphs before and after.

I'm exhausted of plans now. any help?

EDIT

Example:

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper,twoside,openany]{book}

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx}

% privides the H option
\usepackage{float}

% produces random text for testing
\usepackage{blindtext}

\begin{document}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\end{document}


and this is what I get on page 2:

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Please add a minimal working example (MWE) that illustrates your problem. – henrique Oct 15 '12 at 23:53
What is the size of your image? Could it be wider than \textwidth or taller than \textheight? You can scale it using width=\textwidth or height=.5\textheight. – Werner Oct 15 '12 at 23:54
You say [htb] but the main effect of that is to disallow page floats as p is not included so the float is not allowed to appear on a page on its own. H prevents the float from floating so makes ugly white space on the preceding page almost inevitable unless you manually position the float in the source file to optimise the page break. – David Carlisle Oct 16 '12 at 0:08
A great discussion about floats in LaTeX is at How to influence the position of float environments like figure and table in LaTeX?. – Guido Oct 16 '12 at 0:25
latex-community.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1279 check this page for removing space after figure caption – user42025 Dec 2 '13 at 3:59

I have prepared an example -- do you think that the white space is too big here?

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx}

% privides the H option
\usepackage{float}

% produces random text for testing
\usepackage{blindtext}

\begin{document}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\end{document}


Hello again. I prepared another example. The result can be found here

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper,twoside,openany]{book}

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx}

% privides the H option
\usepackage{float}

% produces random text for testing
\usepackage{blindtext}

% Parameters for floating objects in LaTeX
% An overview can be found in the book
% The Latex Companions Chapter 6.1
% A good start is
% http://robjhyndman.com/researchtips/latex-floats/

\setcounter{topnumber}{2}
\setcounter{bottomnumber}{2}
\setcounter{totalnumber}{4}
\renewcommand{\topfraction}{0.85}
\renewcommand{\bottomfraction}{0.85}
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.15}
\renewcommand{\floatpagefraction}{0.8}
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.1}
\setlength{\floatsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}
\setlength{\textfloatsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}
\setlength{\intextsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}

\begin{document}

\chapter{Test}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\section{Test}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\section{Test}

\blindtext[2]

\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,height=50mm]{}
\caption{Test Test Test}
\end{figure}

\blindtext[2]

\end{document}


In the example I just used the standard placement option and did not use the H option. You can still use it if necessary. An overview can be found in the book The Latex Companions Chapter 6.1. A good start can also be found here. Also very good - but you have to read a lot - here to be found.

There is also a ! operator: \begin{figure}[!htb]. It is stronger than [htb] but weaker than [H].

In the example I changed some of the parameters:

\setcounter{topnumber}{2}
\setcounter{bottomnumber}{2}
\setcounter{totalnumber}{4}
\renewcommand{\topfraction}{0.85}
\renewcommand{\bottomfraction}{0.85}
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.15}
\renewcommand{\floatpagefraction}{0.8}
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.1}
\setlength{\floatsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}
\setlength{\textfloatsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}
\setlength{\intextsep}{5pt plus 2pt minus 2pt}


It is a bit of work to understand what everyone of these parameters mean. You can use my suggestion as a start.

In general I would worry about the placement when you are near the end and want to 'tidy up'.

-
Try using \begin{figure}[h] instead of capital H. There are no blank spaces this way. – Vivi Oct 16 '12 at 0:48
@manuel your example looks perfect. that's basically what I want to see in my document as well. but i'm using the book class. I've added as an edit on my question what I see when I change your example to a book class. – r m Oct 16 '12 at 8:17
You don't have to sign with your name since it automatically appears in the lower right corner of your post. – hpesoj626 Oct 16 '12 at 11:04
wow. that really worked. :) – r m Oct 16 '12 at 22:20

As mentioned in comments using [H] makes large white spaces inevitable unless you manually adjust the float positioning and page breaking since the whole point of H is to disable LaTeX's float placement algorithm which normally tries to avoid such bad spaces.

If you replace each [H] by [htp] in your posted example the spacing is much better and as expected.

-