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I am using floats throughout the text perhaps this messes with spacing. It seems such an easy thing to adjust, yet I find no answer.

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I've supplied a generic answer to your problem addressing lengths between text elements and headings/floats. You need to provide more detail in order to obtain an adequate solution. For example, what document class are you using? You mention both floats and headings; is this correct? Perhaps you can include an image of the desired and current output to highlight your problem. See How can I upload an image to be included in a question or answer? – Werner Nov 25 '12 at 18:00

As a general guide, the layouts documentation provides the different lengths associated with various elements within a document.

Section layout:

In the default LaTeX document classes (article, book and report), sections are set using \@startsection. Here's a take with some description of when each argument means if you wish to change \subsubsection, say (taken directly from the layouts documentation):

  {subsubsection}% name
  {3}% level
  {0mm}% indent
  {-\baselineskip}% beforeskip
  {0.5\baselineskip}% afterskip
  {\large\itshape}}% style

A visual representation of the length locations/usage within the context of the heading (two different types, depending on whether afterskip is positive/negative ~ display/run-in):

enter image description here

There's also the titlesec and sectsty packages that could help in adjusting these values.

Floats layout:

Lengths affecting the location of textual content with respect to floats are \floatsep, \textfloatsep and \intextsep. Their default values, as set in latex.ltx, are:

\setlength\floatsep    {12\p@ \@plus 2\p@ \@minus 2\p@}% 12pt plus 2pt minus 2pt
\setlength\textfloatsep{20\p@ \@plus 2\p@ \@minus 4\p@}% 20pt plus 2pt minus 4pt
\setlength\intextsep   {12\p@ \@plus 2\p@ \@minus 2\p@}% 12pt plus 2pt minus 2pt

A visual representation of their locationa amongst other document elements are given in Figure 13:

enter image description here

You can modify this in the preamble of your LyX document. For example, adding


would fix the separation between top/bottom floats to a line of text.

Note that all these modifications, if applied, will have a global effect on your document. This is a good thing, for the sake of consistency. However, manual modifications are also possible (not recommended), and should be left until the end of your document production.

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