# How to handle too long equations?

I have some equations that don't fit in one line. In addition, they have different heights. I think it looks awful.

\documentclass{report}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}
\begin{align*}
\int_{E} \operatorname{Re}  ((Q f)(x) - g(x))^2 \mu(dx) &=
\int_{E} \left( \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i} (x)
- \operatorname{Re}(g(x))\right)^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=
\int_{E} \left( \sum_{i=1}^n  \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i}(x) \right)^2
-2 \sum_{i=1}^n  \operatorname{Re}(m_i)\,1_{A_i}(x)\, \operatorname{Re}(g(x)) \\
& \quad +  \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=
\int_{E}  \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i)^2\, 1_{A_i}(x)
-2 \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i}(x)\, \operatorname{Re}(g(x))
\\
& \quad + \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=\sum_{i=1}^n  \int_{A_i}  \operatorname{Re}(m_i)^2
-2 \operatorname{Re}(m_i)\, \operatorname{Re}( g(x))\\
& \quad + \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&= \sum_{i=1}^n \int_{A_i}
(\operatorname{Re}(g(x) - m_i )^2 \mu(dx)
\end{align*}

\end{document}


Is there any chance to make it look better?

-
You could start with replacing the first align*-line by &\hphantom{{}={}}\int_{E} \operatorname{Re} ((Q f)(x) - g(x))^2 \mu(dx) \\ , then the \\ & \quad  can be removed. – Stephen Nov 28 '12 at 18:26

## 1 Answer

How about this:

\documentclass{report}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}
\begin{align*}
\int_{E} \operatorname{Re} &  ((Q f)(x) - g(x))^2 \mu(dx) =
\int_{E} \Big( \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i} (x)
- \operatorname{Re}(g(x))\Big)^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=
\int_{E} \Big( \sum_{i=1}^n  \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i}(x) \Big)^2
-2 \sum_{i=1}^n  \operatorname{Re}(m_i)\,1_{A_i}(x)\, \operatorname{Re}(g(x))
+  \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=
\int_{E}  \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i)^2\, 1_{A_i}(x)
-2 \sum_{i=1}^n \operatorname{Re}(m_i) \,1_{A_i}(x)\, \operatorname{Re}(g(x))
+ \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&=\sum_{i=1}^n  \int_{A_i}  \operatorname{Re}(m_i)^2
-2 \operatorname{Re}(m_i)\, \operatorname{Re}( g(x))
+ \operatorname{Re}(g(x))^2 \mu(dx)\\
&= \sum_{i=1}^n \int_{A_i}
(\operatorname{Re}(g(x) - m_i )^2 \mu(dx)
\end{align*}

\end{document}


I hardly ever use \left / \right brackets, since they usually are too massive (unless you \smash{} the things inside). Better fine tune with \big, \Big and so on...

-
this is so awesome! Thanks a lot – Adam Nov 28 '12 at 21:04
And \DeclareMathOperator\re{Re} in the preamble, using \re instead all of this \operatorname{Re} would be awesome. – Manuel Nov 28 '12 at 23:16
I thought to a similar solution, but leaving only the left hand side in the first line. I endorse Manuel's advice and I'd also remove all the \, commands. Surely \left and \right are to avoid when enclosing a summation symbol, preferring \biggl and \biggr (maybe \Bigl and \Bigr are still too small). However the l and r variants should be used rather the unadorned \Big. – egreg Nov 29 '12 at 0:29