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I would appreciate if someone could tell me difference between [t] and [ht] in the following example? I don't see a difference in the output pdf file.

\begin{figure}[ht]
...
\end{figure}

and

\begin{figure}[t]
...
\end{figure}
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2 Answers 2

up vote 46 down vote accepted

These are optional parameters to finetune the placement of tables and figures, with the following meaning:

  • h, here
  • t, top
  • b, bottom
  • p, page of float

and LaTeX will try to honore the placement with respect to actual place, the top or bottom of the page, or a separate page of floats. For example, when using ht LaTeX will try to put the figure at the insertion point, then on the top of the next page if it happens to violate its typesetting rules. You may also force LaTeX to "insist" on these specifications by adding an exclamation mark (!) before the placement parameters, e.g. \begin{figure}[!htb].

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The argument for a separate page of floats is called p (page), not f. –  lockstep Jan 10 '11 at 18:37
    
@lockstep Thanks. This is fixed now. –  chl Jan 10 '11 at 18:42
5  
Note that the ! means that LaTeX will ignore certain other restrictions for placement (e.g., number of floats on a page; maximum size of bottom floats, etc.); it will not always help and should be used sparingly. –  Will Robertson Jan 11 '11 at 2:08
    
@Will Thanks for the added clarification. –  chl Jan 11 '11 at 7:59
5  
The order of the arguments doesn't actually matter. See How to influence the position of float environments like figure and table in LaTeX? for "the full story" on float placement. –  Torbjørn T. Apr 11 '13 at 22:03

there will be no difference, because your documentclass will change it anyway to ht, which means place the floating object here or, if it is not possible depending to the parameter setting of the lenghts and counters, put it on the top of the next page. For [!ht] the parameter setting will be ignored and you can have for example 20 floats on one page. Without a h in your parameter the float can also appear on the top of the current page.

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2  
[ht] differs from [h] in that it allows top of current page (latex only changes h to ht after the page that the float is on) –  David Carlisle Apr 11 '13 at 21:59

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