I am constructing a bibliography of as much of the prior research in a field I am working in. I would like to use BibTeX to print the citation in the pdf, and then I would like to add the details of the paper after the citation. Only then would I like to print the next citation. For example:

[1] Jahan M. Dawlaty and Yunquing Chen. Measurement of the optical absorption of graphene in the terahertz. Applied Physics Letters, 2008.

Research Group: Cornell

Pump Wavelength: 500 nm.

Probe Wavelenth: 7 microns.

Relaxation Time: 50 fs.

[2] Paul George and Dmitry Vekslar, Measurement of Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Graphene. Applied Physics Letters, 2009.

. . . and so on.

Does anyone know how this could be done?

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You could (ab)use the note field in the bib-file I suppose, putting the extra info there, optionally with some linebreaks etc. – Torbjørn T. Dec 30 '12 at 22:30
You might use BibLaTeX+Biber's customisable data model to add fields to your .bib like RESEARCHGROUP={Cornell} or PW={500} etc. which can then be formatted like any other field in a biblatex style designed for exactly the format you need. If you can use biblatex+biber, it would be possible for someone to show how to do this, I am sure. – PLK Dec 30 '12 at 22:59
Depends on the style you use. You could tweak the style to use the annote field, which was designed for producing annotated bibliographies (though it is not used by the standard styles). In general, however, your job will probably be much easier if you use biblatex. – jon Dec 30 '12 at 23:01
I could easily transfer to biblatex+biber, if that could solve the problem. – Nick Thompson Dec 30 '12 at 23:07

As I mention in a comment, you could abuse the note field in the bib-file. This only works if the note is typeset last of course, and I don't know if that always is the case. Hence, this may not be a solution at all, though it works for the example you posted.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\begin{filecontents*}{\jobname.bib}
@article{dawlaty,
author={Jahan M. Dawlaty and Yunquing Chen},
title={Measurement of the optical absorption of graphene in the terahertz},
journal={Applied Physics Letters},
year={2008},
note={\par
Research Group: Cornell \\
Pump Wavelength: 500 nm. \\
Probe Wavelenth: 7 microns. \\
Relaxation Time: 50 fs.}}

@article{george,
author={Paul George and Dmitry Vekslar},
title={Measurement of Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Graphene},
journal={Applied Physics Letters},
year={2009}}
\end{filecontents*}

\begin{document}

\nocite{*}
\bibliographystyle{plain}
\bibliography{\jobname}
\end{document}

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This would definitely work, but if I wanted to use the .bib to write another paper, I would have to remove piles of notes. This isn't an insurmountable difficulty, though the work/reward ratio is increasing. – Nick Thompson Jan 2 '13 at 4:32