Conventionally { and }; used to delimit groups or arguments in (La)TeX code.

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77
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2answers
111k views

How can I get text underneath an underbrace?

I am looking to do something of the following: To get text underneath the underbrace. Is it involving \stackrel or some sort of similar command?
70
votes
5answers
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{(x+y)}^2 or (x+y)^2?

This expression is just an example, of course. My question is: should one always specify the quantity being exponentiated by surrounding it with braces, or is it acceptable to drop those braces? (...
61
votes
6answers
2k views

How bad for TeX is omitting braces {}, even if the result is the same?

Sometimes writing braces and omitting them produces the same result: \tilde{\psi} \mathrm{e}^{\mathrm{i} \pi} vs \tilde \psi \mathrm e^{\mathrm i \pi} Or (taken from Werner's comment below) ...
56
votes
7answers
33k views

Adding a large brace next to a body of text

I'm writing a short document listing some chronological events. I want to pick out a period with a big brace. Here's a quick mockup: What's the best way to do this? Can I set the size declaratively ...
38
votes
8answers
4k views

Why do people use unnecessary braces?

I often see people creating new macros where the macro token is surrounded by braces. For example, \newcommand{\foo}{foo} This is unnecessary and I find the extra braces make it harder to read. Why ...
33
votes
4answers
32k views

Large braces for specifying values of variables by condition

How do I typeset something like, X = 0 if a=1, 1 otherwise, using those huge left braces and specifying each condition in a line?
29
votes
3answers
22k views

How to put a brace on the right, not left, to group cases?

How can I get a brace on the right, not the left, to group cases, using cases? (I know actual cases look better with the brace on the left, but the items I need to group are not literally cases. They ...
29
votes
1answer
4k views

\{ & \} vs \lbrace & \rbrace

So, what is the difference in using \{ and \} to using \lbrace and \rbrace? Which one is preferred, and when one has to take care?
27
votes
5answers
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Showcase of brace tricks: }, \egroup, \iffalse{\fi}, etc.

There have been a few questions about braces recently, specifically about when to use them (see this and that question). Note: I had mistakenly stated that SamB was the author of both questions. But ...
25
votes
2answers
2k views

Asymmetric overbrace

This question led to a new package: abraces How can I control the position of an overbrace's spike? e.g. I want: /------^----------------------\ aksdj ajksdnkajs ajsdknakjsnd jaknd As opposed ...
22
votes
3answers
886 views

Why are text format commands used inside braces?

Most commands in Latex are written with the arguments inside braces following the command: \command{arguments}. But text formatting options, like \em, or \scriptsize are usually written inside the ...
21
votes
3answers
2k views

Why does TeX remove braces around delimited arguments?

On pp. 203–204 of the TeXbook, Knuth describes how TeX absorbs macros' arguments: delimited go until the first appearance of the delimiter, and undelimited go until the next token, in both cases ...
18
votes
1answer
4k views

How to vertically align underbraces

I am trying to balance underbraces in the equation below, how can I ensure that both underbraces at the same depth? \begin{equation} y = \underbrace{ \left [ x^2 + r^2 (a^2+\frac{a^{0.3}}{b}) \right]}...
17
votes
1answer
18k views

Double square braces like these ⟦exp⟧?

How do I create mathematical equation double square braces like these ⟦exp⟧ in latex? I failed to find it on google (I created these using word 2010 equation editor). I would like these to be of ...
17
votes
1answer
1k views

Brackets around matrices in TikZ

I'm writing a custom package for labeled matrices using TikZ. I noticed an inconsistency in TikZ. This is best illustrated with the following MWE: \documentclass{standalone} \usepackage{tikz} \...
16
votes
1answer
59k views

Left brace including several lines in eqnarray [duplicate]

How is it possible to make a brace and have something like this in a eqnarray block?
16
votes
1answer
4k views

Using braces to label parts of an equation

Given an equation, say Bayes' rule, $P(X \mid O) \propto P(X)P(O \mid X)$ how do I label the different parts of the equation using curly braces?
15
votes
2answers
146 views

How do extra braces impact the placement of items in the document?

I am placing some of my document through some outside BASH scripts, but want to protect some information such that the scripts will not change them. The simplest option for me is to put { and } around ...
15
votes
1answer
5k views

Adjusting vertical alignment of underbraces

Is there a way to align multiple underbraces so that they sit on the same horizontal line? For example, the following code \[ \biggl( \underbrace{0,1}_{A}, \underbrace{\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{3}}_{B} \...
15
votes
3answers
9k views

Aligning across 'aligned' equation blocks

I'd like to format two groups of equations such that all their equal signs line up and such that I can put a big brace to the right of each block to annotate that block. The last part is easily ...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

How can I put a curly brace inside an algorithm to group code lines?

I am using the algorithmic package (or even algorithm2e is fine). Is it possible to use curly braces to group some lines in the algorithm so as to be able to put an explanation to the right?
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Differences in vertical positioning of superscripts and subscripts depending on grouping (`{ }`): Why? Caveats? Workarounds?

This question about {(x+y)}^2 vs (x+y)^2 drew my attention to the slightly different vertical positioning of super- and subscripts for such expressions. Compare (x+y)^8_8 (left) and {(x+y)}^8_8 (right)...
13
votes
2answers
15k views

A lateral brace to group a set of equations with labels

I have a set of equations that I'd like to display together (as an example, the Maxwell's equations). Requirement #1: I'd like to have them labelled like in an align environment \begin{align} &\...
12
votes
2answers
298 views

necessity of braces for accent commands

Many resources on LaTeX teach that "é" and "ä" are typeset with (respectively) \'{e} and \"{a}; and it is similar for other accent symbols. Are the braces really needed? Aren't \'e and \"a shorter but ...
12
votes
1answer
8k views

Adding underbrace in tikz

I have this code to draw a mass on a spring and now I want to have a curly brace below the spring to denote the distance: x_0. How do I do this? \begin{tikzpicture} \tikzstyle{ground}=[fill,pattern=...
12
votes
1answer
3k views

Curly brackets around a table

I would like to have braces on the left side of a table (either that or on the right side) and bellow the same table. What I have got is $ m-Mal \underbrace{ \left\{\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|}\...
12
votes
1answer
20k views

Aligning the right parts in multiple \begin{cases}

Is there an intelligent way to left-align the parts right of & of the two cases environments shown below (if x >= 0, otherwise, if y < 0, otherwise). I wonder if there is a better way than ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

How can I draw annotated braces over and under math expressions?

What LaTeX markup would one have to write to produce a result similar to the image below? Please excuse my Paint-and-mouse drawing skills. :-)
11
votes
3answers
497 views

How do I adjust \underbrace spacing?

I have an equation like this \documentclass{article} \usepackage{IEEEtrantools} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{IEEEeqnarray*}{rClCl} \left( \begin{array}{c} f\frac{X}{...
11
votes
2answers
358 views

Why is unicode-math not working with TikZ?

This thread evoked from this thread. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{unicode-math} % This causes the question mark bug % This code requises unicode-math % How can you use the code without ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Side brace around image with underbrace

I have an image and I want to put a side brace on the left and an underbrace on the bottom. The underbrace works fine, but the left becomes twice the image height for some reason. I'm sure the image ...
11
votes
1answer
267 views

Straight Braces

Can I make a variant of Latex Braces? In some equations system, I'd like to use a left brace like in this picture:
11
votes
2answers
6k views

Put a curly brace under an ellipsis in a math setting?

so I have $m\times n = n + n + \dots + n$ in my text right now, but I would like to put a curly brace under the \dots to emphasize that there are m n's involved. How would I do this?
11
votes
3answers
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whitespace/brace/indentation conventions for LaTeX programming

This question is not about formatting the text/markup of a document. I'm really focused on the programming aspect of LaTeX. I'm working on a fairly large set of document classes and packages, and I'...
11
votes
1answer
4k views

Annotating individual math terms with braces

I am trying to annotate individual terms of a mathematical expression, as depicted below. The problem I get is that the comment seems to be taken as part of the fraction, which unnecessarily extends ...
10
votes
2answers
402 views

Tikz figure inside equation with braces that are too large

I'm currently trying to include a tree, visualized using Tikz-qtree and Tikz into an equation. The problem I'm having is that the curly braces are way too large. The code I'm using at the moment is: ...
10
votes
1answer
202 views

Treating < and > as synonyms for the curly braces { and }

I am exporting photo metadata from a software which seems to be unable to export curly braces correctly. Is there any way to tell LaTeX to treat < as {, and > as }, to keep me from having to go ...
9
votes
2answers
7k views

How to escape curly braces within \texttt{}

How can I escape curly braces within the \texttt{} environment? \texttt{ \{ } produces errors within my template, which can be found here: (link) I saw this question for square braces, but the ...
9
votes
2answers
299 views

Underbrace in denominator with () [] {} (howto)

I would like to put an underbrace correctly under the denominator of a expression but what I get is wrong because of the (). Alternatively I create another line in the text [~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~...
9
votes
1answer
7k views

Missing } inserted, yet braces are balanced

Regard the following document: \documentclass[a4paper,reqno]{amsart} \usepackage{amssymb,amsmath,amsthm,fullpage} \begin{document} For each $k$ we denote by $\lambda_k$ the $k$th symmetric ...
9
votes
1answer
596 views

Labeling non axis parallel braces in tikz

Given two points, the following code draws a brace connecting them and labels it. \documentclass{standalone} \usepackage{tikz} \usetikzlibrary{calc,decorations.pathreplacing} \begin{document} \begin{...
9
votes
1answer
286 views

Using xy-pic, how do you label an arrow with a curly brace that spans the length of the arrow, and can be offset arbitrary distances?

I'm trying to figure out how to label the arrows with curly braces that span the length of the arrow, and to make it all very pretty. More specifically, I'm trying to make \documentclass[10pt]{...
8
votes
2answers
5k views

Underbrace in Tikz

I'm trying to add an underbrace to a graph in tikz but when i compile run PDFLaTeX and View PDF, the underbrace doesn't look correct. Instead of curling down and inwards at the ends, it goes outwards ...
8
votes
4answers
647 views

How to put curly brace in front of even number of bullets?

I need to put curly braces in front of even number of bullets. The following post works perfectly for odd number of bullets. Bullet points and curly braces how can we modify it to for even number ...
8
votes
3answers
9k views

Using a big brace over multiple lines - multiple lines left of it

I am super helpless, I wanna do the following: Mathmode, 2 lines on the left, a brace over both (using array) and than I wanna have 3 lines on the right. A small example: \begin{align*} \left. \...
8
votes
3answers
70 views

How to position brace label?

I want this layout but I can't control the placement of s1, s2 and s3. How do I achieve this. My MWE follows. \documentclass[11pt]{article} \usepackage{tikz} \usetikzlibrary{decorations....
8
votes
1answer
5k views

! You can't use `\eqno' in math mode

what is wrong with this??? please,can anyone help? \begin{equation} \label{probabilityy} P^{t}({E_{0})=P_{0}+(1-P_{0})P_{1}+ (1-P_{0})(1-P_{1})P_{2}+.......+P_{n}\Pi_{k_{0}}^{n-1}(1-P_{k}) \end{...
8
votes
1answer
303 views

How can I typeset a brace on the right-hand side of two equations?

How to obtein this on latex? Thank you.
8
votes
2answers
383 views

Underline number in two parts; math mode

I'm trying to underbrace a binary numeral as follow: 10111101 '--''---' B D in order to show the binary-hexadecimal correspondence, but using twice the underbrace command: \underbrace{...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

braces over matrix

I want to make an overbrace and a side brace on my matrix in order to indicate its size. How can I achieve that. \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 0 & .& . & . & 0 & 1 \\ 0 &...