{equations} is about the various environments to typeset displaystyle mathematics, e.g. equation and {align}. For general questions about mathematical typesetting use {math-mode}. Both tags are possible on the same question.

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230
votes
8answers
18k views

Why is \[ … \] preferable to $$ … $$?

I've heard that you should use \[ ... \] for displayed equations instead of $$ ... $$, but why is that? I'd assumed that it's so that you can more easily tell which are starting and which are ending ...
79
votes
5answers
88k views

eqnarray vs align

I want to include a list of related equations, say, for a proof, in my LaTeX document. As far as I know, I have two good options, eqnarray and align. What is the difference between them, and how do I ...
16
votes
2answers
6k views

Left/Right across multi-line equation

I have a multi-line equation that I want to have matching sized parentheses. The advice I read online was to use \left( equation \right. \\ left. rest-of-equation \right) . However, this syntax leaves ...
47
votes
4answers
8k views

What are the differences between $$, \[, align, equation and displaymath?

I once learnt, that it is uncool to use $$, but why is that? Why does \[ not act as a abbreviation to \begin{align}? I noticed, that there is a difference, since one cannot use & and \\ inside a ...
42
votes
2answers
35k views

How to write conditional equations with one-sided curly brackets

I want to write a conditional expression such as the following. What is the best way to express such conditional expressions in Latex?
66
votes
4answers
118k views

How can I split an equation over two lines

I am having the following equation: \begin{equation} Q(\lambda,\hat{\lambda}) = -\frac{1}{2} P(O \mid \lambda ) \sum_s \sum_m \sum_t \gamma_m^{(s)} (t) \left( n \log(2 \pi ) + \log \left| C_m^{(s)} ...
37
votes
2answers
13k views

Separate long math text under sum symbol into different lines?

I have the following equation, where there is a lot of stuff under the sum symbol: \begin{equation} d(\vec{x},\vec{y})= \sum_{Z_{xy}\in\vec{Z}_{xy},\forall x\in\vec{x},\forall y\in\vec{y}} ...
41
votes
4answers
6k views

align vs equation

I always use align in my documents, and avoid equation. Is there anything wrong with that? My reasoning behind this: align > equation, so why not use it?
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Changing the apperance of equation numbers with amsmath

For equations in my document, I use the facilities of the amsmath package. In order to make the equation numbers more eye-catching, I want them to be in boldface and a little bit indented to the ...
40
votes
3answers
15k views

How to get only one vertically centered equation number in align environment with two equations

sorry if this has been answered before, I couldn't find anything through search. I'm sure its a common problem though. What I have are two equations with align and I want one single equation number ...
47
votes
2answers
3k views

How do I number equations only if they are referred to in the text?

I have a paper where all equations are numbered, but I want to number equations only if they are actually referred to in the .tex file using \ref{}. How can I make that happen? Alternatively, how can ...
59
votes
4answers
124k views

How to break a long equation?

I have a long equation but long enough to occupy two lines. I want to break it to improve readability. How can I break it? \begin{equation} F = \{F_{x} \in F_{c} : (|S| > |C|) \cap (minPixels ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

How to make a standalone document with one equation?

I was surprised to find that standalone package can not compile a document with an equation: \documentclass{standalone} \begin{document} \begin{equation} % not working! F(V, T) = E(V) + D(T) ...
19
votes
4answers
7k views

Making a new environment combining equation and split

I'm trying to define a new environment that consists of a split environment inside an equation environment. But I'm getting an error. Here's what I'm doing: \documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article} ...
35
votes
5answers
2k views

How to write a perfect equation parameters description?

A symbols or parameters description is shown below, however, the = and the details of parameter are not aligned. I want to make a parameters list for a equation like this, in which symbols, = and ...
37
votes
3answers
26k views

align* but show one equation number at the end

I am using align*, but I still need an equation number. I know one solution is to use align and add \nonumber to all lines but the last. Is there a 'lazy' way to do it? I searched a little and found ...
26
votes
6answers
2k views

For formal articles, should a displayed equation be followed by a punctuation to conform to the language grammar ?

For formal articles, should a displayed equation be followed by a punctuation to conform to the language grammar ? For example: The most well-known physics formula is \[E=mc^2.\] %should I put ...
19
votes
2answers
6k views

Highlight an equation within an align environment

I would like to define a command that puts a red box around an equation with yellow highlighting. I have the basics working pretty well. What I am unable to figure out is: How to keep the alignment ...
11
votes
1answer
79k views

How to left align a set of equations.

I wanted to left align a set of equations. I've tried the solution provided in aligning to the left. It worked. But, I wanted to have a single equation number for the entire flalign in order to refer ...
29
votes
3answers
6k views

Centering \vdots in a system of many equations

I have a system of equations with an arbitrary number of equations (k). I'd like to use \vdots to compactly describe the system, like so: \begin{align*} R(-1) &= \sum_{i=1}^m A(i)R(i-1) \\ ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Help me to write Long LaTeX equations fast with colours and possibly with other aids

I am too slow LaTeX-typist, for example with the equations below I cannot find where I am missing some bracket. Could someone offer me some computational method? I use Vim but I am happy with any ...
16
votes
6answers
4k views

Align two inequalities

I am trying to align two inequlities vertically. The \le signs should have the same horizontal positions and the term in the should be centered. My first attempt: \begin{align*} \sum a &\le \sum ...
32
votes
5answers
2k views

LaTeX accessibility

Does anyone know of any LaTeX modules that makes the pdf output generated by pdflatex Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)/Section 508 compliant? Specifics: With regard to math. One simple ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

How to export a equation as a image without background?

For example, if we have a equation on a file like: \documentclass[12pt]{standalone} \usepackage{varwidth} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc} \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} \usepackage{amsmath, amssymb, ...
9
votes
1answer
10k views

Left align (to the page) displayed math

How can I left align the display math environment (either $$ or \[)? I keep running into people asking about the align environment; but I just want to change displayed math from center to left align ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Errors in matrix equation?

I'm getting errors in a matrix equation. When I compile it looks fine, but I'd like to fix them so I don't have to press return for every error at compile time. The code for the equation is: ...
38
votes
3answers
2k views

Which command should I use for displayed equations?

A number of related questions have already been asked about this issue: align vs equation which is preferable to what to do with this hyperref note on amsmath and even eqnarray vs align But I'm ...
19
votes
4answers
24k views

Reducing font size in equation

I wanted to type an equation in LaTeX. But it is too long to fit into one line. It involves big arrays with many columns so I cannot split it. I wanted to reduce the font size so that it can fit in ...
22
votes
4answers
3k views

Sharing alignment between equations in two different items

In the following minimal example, I have two equations inside an itemize environment, with an item per equations. Each equation is defined in its own equation environment. \documentclass{article} ...
33
votes
4answers
9k views

How can I get rid of indentation after an equation?

I'm a total newbie to LaTeX and I get very annoyed about this. Every time I write an equation, the text following the equation has some indentation but I don't want it to be there! Look at the ...
16
votes
2answers
9k views

How to globally change the spacing around equations?

How could I go about setting the 'above' and 'below' vspaces around the equation environment? If the same could be done for the subequations or gather environments, this would be a bonus.
14
votes
3answers
6k views

Aligning across 'aligned' equation blocks

I'd like to format two groups of equations such that all their equal signs line up and such that I can put a big brace to the right of each block to annotate that block. The last part is easily ...
12
votes
5answers
5k views

Diagonal strikeout starting too low and ending too high

I want to strikeout an equation with diagonal line but I've not managed to get the diagonal line to draw as I want. The closest I've gotten is via the first example in Frédéric's answer of \cancel ...
15
votes
3answers
23k views

How to write a function (piecewise) with bracket outside?

How to write this Piecewise function using LaTeX? I tried $ \begin{array}{cc} \{ & \begin{array}{cc} 0 & x\leq 0 \\ \frac{100-x}{100} & 0\leq x\leq 100 \\ 0 ...
11
votes
4answers
5k views

abovedisplayskip vs abovedisplayshortskip

What is the difference between these two? http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/TeX/abovedisplayskip http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/TeX/abovedisplayshortskip I don't know why, but it seems to work unusually. ...
8
votes
1answer
647 views

custom automatic equation numbering

I just read a book where the equations in the Introduction were numbered slightly differently compared to the other sections, namely by (In.x) where x stands for the number (so it starts off as ...
11
votes
2answers
281 views

Equation number enclosing parentheses misplaced with Polyglossia+Hebrew+amsmath

I am compiling the following MWE using XeLatex within TeXnicCenter and get a garbled equation number: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{polyglossia} \setmainlanguage{hebrew} ...
4
votes
6answers
4k views

How can I auto adjust a equation to appear in the entire page? (Scale to equations, is this exist?)

If I have a document like this: \documentclass[landscape, 12pt]{report} \usepackage[landscape]{geometry} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc} \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} \usepackage{amsmath, amssymb, ...
36
votes
4answers
60k views

How can I change the font size in math equations?

I find that whenever I'm typing some equations into a document, and the equation gets a bit complex (let's say a fraction in a parentheses, squared, inside a square root, inside a fraction), the ...
35
votes
11answers
5k views

Embedding LaTeX equations into a webpage

I'd like to include some basic math equations into a webpage. Is there an easy way of either compiling the LaTeX into an image which I can upload, or else of having the browser parse the code?
55
votes
2answers
10k views

Two letter variable names

In math mode, TeX assumes "hidden multiplication" (so that two variable names put nearby have invisible multiplication between), so that, AFAICT, expressions like $ABC$ are rendered with small ...
33
votes
5answers
4k views

How can I get an underbrace and an overbrace to partially overlap in an equation?

Sometimes I want to describe portions of an equation using \underbrace and \overbrace in such a way that the portions are not completely distinct, for example: /-------\ x = A + B + C + D + E ...
21
votes
2answers
40k views

Attractive Boxed Equations

I often used \boxed{...} from the AMS math package to place a box around important equations. However, this approach often produces somewhat awkward looking output. Consider \documentclass{article} ...
19
votes
3answers
3k views

Exporting all equations from a document as individual svg files

I'm currently a presentation based on a paper originally written in Latex. Currently, I use Kile and Ubuntu for my work. What I'm finding is that I need a large number of the equations from the ...
34
votes
3answers
32k views

Label equation with a symbol

I would like to label an equation with an arbitrary symbol, rather than a number, or letter. Is this possible?
22
votes
3answers
33k views

Show equation number only once in align environment

I want the equation number to be shown only at the last line, or better, somewhere in the middle of all. So instead of (1), (2), ... only (1). I use \begin{align} ... \end{align}
14
votes
2answers
806 views

How do I show the equation formula again instead of its number of ref?

I have an equation: \begin{equation}\label{eq:equation} f(x)=x \end{equation} I would like to refer to this equation and show the whole formula again, and not only its number. In other words, I ...
13
votes
1answer
7k views

How can I have a bigger integral (\int) delimiter?

I'm writing some integrals and I don't like the way the \int symbol is displayed when it is followed by a big delimiter. Here's the code: \[ \int_S\biggl(\nabla\times\bar B - \mu_0\bar J - ...
17
votes
2answers
15k views

One column equation in twocolumn document class

I am writing a paper (revtex4-1, reprint documentclass which I believe uses twocolumn) and need to have a long equation that needs to break the two column format. I've seen answers to this question ...
10
votes
3answers
7k views

Uncover a multiline equation with beamer

I am using the beamer class for a presentation and amsmath package for the math mode. If I uncover the formula in the following way, the formula jumps between slides, which is not intended. ...