{line-breaking} is about how (La)TeX breaks paragraphs into lines and how those breaks can be influenced.

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357
votes
16answers
289k views

How to add a forced line break inside a table cell

I have some text in a table and I want to add a forced line break. I want to insert a forced line break without having to specify the column width, i.e. something like the following: \begin{tabular}{|...
178
votes
5answers
7k views

How to define the badness of a river?

I've written an algorithm to try and detect rivers in paragraphs and it actually detects quite a lot when I run it. Some of them are clearly false positives, but there are others that are indeed ...
141
votes
1answer
38k views

Manual/automatic line breaks and text alignment in TikZ nodes

How can I insert a line break in a TikZ node? Simply putting \\ where I want the break doesn't work (see MWE). Is there a way to make lines break automatically at some specified width? And can I ...
119
votes
5answers
263k views

How can I split an equation over two lines

I am having the following equation: \begin{equation} Q(\lambda,\hat{\lambda}) = -\frac{1}{2} P(O \mid \lambda ) \sum_s \sum_m \sum_t \gamma_m^{(s)} (t) \left( n \log(2 \pi ) + \log \left| C_m^{(s)} ...
117
votes
11answers
63k views

Forcing linebreaks in \url

I wish to typeset some relatively long URLs in a piece of text, and when I use \url{..}, the resulting text does not respect the margin boundaries that govern the main text body, instead going all the ...
103
votes
3answers
59k views

What are underfull hboxes and vboxes and how can I get rid of them?

Often, TeX outputs underfull hbox and vbox warnings when running and in the generated log file. What are these and how can I get rid of them?
102
votes
5answers
268k views

How to break a long equation? [duplicate]

I have a long equation but long enough to occupy two lines. I want to break it to improve readability. How can I break it? \begin{equation} F = \{F_{x} \in F_{c} : (|S| > |C|) \cap (minPixels &...
100
votes
2answers
56k views

What does “overfull hbox” mean?

I often see output from TeX with the warning overfull hbox, badness 10000. What does this message mean?
99
votes
2answers
31k views

When to use \par and when \\

What is the difference between \par and \\ and when should I use \par instead of \\?
91
votes
1answer
50k views

What is the difference between \newline and \\?

As far as I know, \\ and \newline both insert a new line. But they do not have an identical expansion and tracing shows they do not execute the same commands, so what is their difference?
82
votes
5answers
49k views

Description list - How to put the definition on a new line?

I have the following LaTeX code: \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \begin{description} \item[foo] bar \item[baz] bang \end{description} \end{document} and it produces the following PDF: ...
81
votes
6answers
37k views

How can I write multiple lines in a subscript?

Is there a way to force a line break inside a math mode text? My example: \[ \underbrace{....}_\text{Some long text that should be multiline} \] Trying \text{Some long text that\\ should be ...
75
votes
6answers
35k views

Prevent LaTeX to break an inline math equation

I hope this question was not asked before. At least I haven't found it. I have an inline math equation and LaTeX is breaking it into two parts. In this case I'd prefer to have the whole and short ...
69
votes
4answers
28k views

Allowing line break at ',' in inline math mode?

In the inline math mode ($...$), if the formula is too long, LaTeX will try to break it on operators, e.g. very long text followed by a very long equation like $a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k+l$ etc may be ...
68
votes
2answers
3k views

Was the Knuth-Plass line breaking output ever subjected to a blind experiment?

Have any blind trials been organized to test to which extent "the average reader" prefers paragraphs typeset by the Knuth-Plass algorithm (or more advanced variants) over those typeset using the ...
67
votes
5answers
5k views

Avoiding “rivers” in successive lines of type

This question led to a new feature in a package: impnattypo The following quote is from James Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2003), p. 161: Rivers occur when word spaces stack one ...
59
votes
5answers
81k views

How to break a line in a table [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to add a forced line break inside a table cell In a table I would like to have a line break in the text inside a cell. Is there an easy way to do so, or do I have to ...
59
votes
1answer
31k views

How to typeset a “small” non-breaking space

I can use ~ to produce a non-breaking space. But it is too large for me, and I would like a non-breaking space of the size of \, for example. Is it possible ?
56
votes
5answers
21k views

When should I use non-breaking space?

DEK gained a reputation of painting red the draft dissertations of his students, taking particular note of incidents when they omitted a non-breaking space that should have been included. I have this ...
51
votes
5answers
96k views

Error message: There's no line here to end

In a letter-class document that had no previous errors I am suddenly getting the error message: "There's no line here to end" \opening{text} I've used this file many times and today it starts ...
49
votes
2answers
40k views

No hyphen for a word

I want to put pdflatex to not put a hyphen in a word went it comes to the end of the line. I tried to put a \- in the beginning or the end of that word but it doesn't work. For example if I put:This ...
49
votes
2answers
19k views

Why does underlined text not get wrapped once it hits the end of a line ?

Sometimes I want to underline some text, and it extends past the end of a line. Why does \underline{} not automatically wrap my text for me ? Also, how can I underline text so that it will still ...
48
votes
3answers
2k views

Why no vertical-mode Knuth-Plass?

I have only basic knowledge of the TeX internals, so I hope what I am saying here is not complete nonsense. If I understand correctly, in TeX, horizontal positioning / line breaking is done using a ...
48
votes
7answers
16k views

Allow line break, but without inserting a dash

I have a sentence that contains a number of long dataset names. I would like to allow LaTeX to break these names at certain positions that I would like to specify somehow just like I can use \- to ...
44
votes
5answers
27k views

How to get long \texttt sections to break

I often format path names with \texttt which can be very long. Usually Tex will not break this text. The line will just create a hbox overflow. It looks like this: ................ ...C:\documents ...
43
votes
5answers
17k views

How to force LaTeX not to break the line after a hyphen “-”?

With ~ we can enforce that no line break occures between two words. But this does not seem to work with special characters. I want LaTeX to enforce not to break the line after the - in (re-)creation. ...
42
votes
1answer
9k views

Breaking equations with breqn

I am new to using the breqn package. It looks good, but I get an odd behaviour when an equation can almost fit in the page but not quite: the alignment gets completely wrong. Is there a way to fix ...
40
votes
1answer
576 views

Test if paragraph has an overfull line

I'd like to test if the last paragraph has any overfull line. The naive approach of looking at the \badness once the paragraph is finished does not work, as it will only give the badness of the last ...
39
votes
4answers
2k views

How to create nonbreaking arbitrary length snakes for full-width justification?

This is a follow-up to the recent xkcd comic: Here is a simple version without justification: \documentclass{article} \usepackage[text={1.2in,3in}]{geometry} \raggedright \begin{document} \...
37
votes
3answers
105k views

How to insert vertical space between paragraphs [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there an easy way to have my whole document with a space between paragraphs rather than indentation? Googling didn't give required results. (Many, but not applicable or ...
37
votes
2answers
2k views

How to visualize the underfull box in final output PDF files

I am finalizing a document. There are a few underfull vbox I just cannot figure out where they are. Sometimes it is easy to figure out which page is underfull vbox from the log file, but sometimes it ...
36
votes
5answers
7k views

one-letter word at the end of line

This question led to a new feature in a package: impnattypo I come from Poland and I'm writing some text in my native language. One of our typography standards is that we do not leave one-letter ...
34
votes
2answers
8k views

What is the difference between \nobreak and \nolinebreak?

What is the difference between \nobreak and \nolinebreak? I noticed that a lot of solutions in TeX.SE use the former, but I thought the latter is LaTeX while the former is plain TeX. And LaTeX macros ...
34
votes
4answers
24k views

Verbatim environment that can break too long lines?

I want to generate a PDF of user-submitted text using LaTeX. To handle crazy user input, I first thought about using the verbatim package, but of course it doesn't break up too long lines. Is there ...
33
votes
4answers
4k views

How to prevent linebreaks after hyphen if word starts with hyphen?

(Remark: Maybe this is a typically German problem, I'm not sure in which other languages that might be relevant) Sometimes there are words which start with a hyphen, as they are connected with a word ...
33
votes
2answers
3k views

TeX assistance in writing hidden acrostics

Here's a fun challenge. Try to come up with (and code) techniques through which (La)TeX can help authors to incorporate acrostics in their writing. The definition from Wikipedia: An acrostic is a ...
32
votes
4answers
17k views

Prevent line breaking in inline math, but allow flexible spacing

How can I easily tell Latex to prevent line-breaks inside a part of an inline formula, without affecting inter-word spacing? Writing something like $ab(c+d)$ in Latex is bad: Latex might put a line ...
31
votes
6answers
15k views

How do I make LaTeX push long citations to a new line?

When I use the \cite command for my citations, often LaTeX will overflow the margins for my lines, and the text looks pretty bad. How can I make LaTeX push long citations to the next line ...
31
votes
2answers
60k views

New line after paragraph? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: paragraph style - how to force line break? \paragraph{} \\ - make paragraph a header? I have the following problem. I have a paragraph and only after this single paragraph ...
31
votes
2answers
31k views

How to format an inline source code

I have a document where I quiet often refer to source code element, such as class names, I wanted to format these strings differently, but at the beginning I didn't want to fiddle with various options ...
31
votes
1answer
525 views

Obtain \badness or glue adjustment for each line

This might be interesting for perfectionists and/or fastidious typesetters who would like to improve the document even further (beyond the beyond the magnificence of a book with zero bad boxes). We ...
30
votes
2answers
9k views

Why should I put a ~ before \ref or \cite?

My question is in the title of this post, but extends to other referencing commands like \eqref, \citep, \citet (and the like) as well.
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Ensure minimal length of last line

This question led to a new feature in a package: impnattypo One rule in French typography is that the last line of a paragraph should not be shorter than the double of the indentation of the next ...
30
votes
2answers
17k views

Line breaking of URLs in bibliographies

I have a problem with the line break of an URL. The URL can´t break correct and extends into the border. I´ve tried some things. Amongst others I loaded the package breakurl, but without any success. ...
30
votes
4answers
65k views

Aligned equations in LaTeX

I have a long equation in LaTeX, which I need to break up into more lines. I've done this, although its not quite what I was looking for. Here is a MWE showing my problem: \documentclass[10pt]{...
30
votes
4answers
18k views

Include a line break in algorithmic while maintaining indentation

I have this code: \DeclareCaptionFormat{algor}{% \hrulefill\par\offinterlineskip\vskip1pt% \textbf{#1#2}#3\offinterlineskip\hrulefill} \DeclareCaptionStyle{algori}{singlelinecheck=off,format=...
28
votes
3answers
26k views

How to put a line-break in section heading?

I have some section headings occupying two lines and I'm not satisfied with the way XeLaTeX breaks the heading. If I manually add \\ the output looks fine, but I get the following warning: [hyperref] ...
28
votes
1answer
2k views

Why does TeX prefer an overfull box to hyphenating here?

Here is a short file which produces an overfull hbox: \documentclass[12pt]{report} \usepackage[left=1.5in,right=1in,paperwidth=8.5in,paperheight=11in]{geometry} \begin{document} \trivlist \item[\...
27
votes
5answers
27k views

Prevent hyphenation and use line break in block of text

I have a custom block of text on my title page which can be longer than a single line. By default LaTeX is hyphenating a word at the end of a line, but I want it to break on to the next line. How do ...
27
votes
3answers
3k views

Help on dealing with items divided with slash

I am using a number of items in text that are divided with a slash. For example dates in different calendars or names of locations, such as 585/1190~CE (the first number is the year in Islamic lunar ...