is about looping constructs which allow a programmer to apply the same operation multiple times, each time with possibly different parameters.

In plain TeX and in LaTeX, one can implement this using counters and \ifnum checks or \loop\unless. Some LaTeX packages even provide their own looping constructs, e.g. TikZ/PGF provides \foreach, pstricks provides \psforeach, multido provides \multido, etc.

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