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6

In LaTeX the \par command gets redefined several times during a run over a document. For example, inside a tabular it does nothing: an input such as \begin{tabular}{l} \ttfamily\meaning\par \end{tabular} would print macro:->. (after the colon the parameter text is shown; after -> up to the period the replacement text is shown). This way, users ...


3

The parskip package aims to allow setting for a non zero \parskip with the standard classes while reducing the number of places unwanted space appears. Alternatively more extensive classes such as the koma classes have design options incorporating non zero parskip. \documentclass[parskip=half]... for example. Using \\ at the end of a paragraph does not ...


3

natbib is a powerful alternative: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{lipsum} \usepackage[authoryear]{natbib} \setlength{\bibsep}{1\baselineskip} \setlength{\bibhang}{0.9cm} \begin{document} \lipsum[2] \begin{thebibliography}{} \bibitem[Leyser(1982)]{ley82} Leyser, Karl J. \textit{Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours, 900--1250}. London, ...


3

The rule used in \leaders: \leaders \hrule \vskip.4pt is removable like another space on the page breaks. You can define somethig like this: \raggedbottom \newcount\quotnumber \def\quotation{\par\global\advance\quotnumber by1 \bigskip \ifnum\qoutnumber>1 \leaders \hrule \vskip.4pt \bigskip \fi \vbox } The introduction text. \quotation{text ...


3

tikzmark could be one option: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{lipsum} \usepackage{tikz} \usetikzlibrary{tikzmark} \begin{document} \begin{description} \item[\tikzmark{a}Blabla text here:] \lipsum[1] \item[\tikzmark{b}Blabla text here:] \lipsum[1] \end{description} \tikz[remember picture,<->] \draw[overlay] ([yshift=1ex]pic cs:a) --++(-0.5,0) |- ...


2

Hard to guess what output you want, three alternatives: \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \begin{description} \item[In nature,] clustering is a mechanism for solving diversity and complexity things from simple and basic elements. In IT field: is a good concept and technique to use existing component hardware or software to accomplish ...


2

You have added \flushleft that disables justification. Hence remove it. \documentclass{book} \usepackage{ragged2e} \begin{document} \pagestyle{empty} %No headings for the first pages. \tableofcontents \pagestyle{plain} %\flushleft %%<- remove \clearpage \chapter*{Dedication} \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{Dedication} %\begin{Dedication} ...


2

Just use the built-in mechanism, that is, list: \documentclass[12pt]{memoir} \usepackage{lipsum} \newenvironment{mybib} {\section*{\bibname} \list{}{% \topsep=0pt \partopsep=0pt \parsep=0pt \leftmargin=0.9cm \itemindent=-\leftmargin \itemsep=\baselineskip}} {\endlist} \begin{document} \lipsum[2] \begin{mybib} \item Leyser, ...


2

Use the indentfirst for indent the first paragraph after a chapter or section title. Set \parskip to fix the space between paragraphs. Better that some fixed length like 2ex use a stretchable glue like 2ex plus .2ex minus .1ex to allow some stretch when needed. Experiment to find the best results for you. Set \parindent (note that this lenght is not ...


1

I'll let someone else post an answer involving \tikzmark. Regarding how the TikZ manual suggests to do this. At the points that you want to connect, you'll use the following code \tikz[remember picture] \node (<node name>) {}; where <node name> is a name of your choice. You should use different names for each such node. To connect the two ...


1

The easiest way to find what a command does is to create a minimal and run: \makeatletter\ttfamily \meaning\par \\ \meaning\@@par \\ \meaning\p@ As you go along studying the LaTeX2e kernel you can grow this minimal with notes etc. The best study source for coding LaTeX2e style packages and macros is the source itself, as well as packages. All these ...


1

Use \everypar{} and \parskip: \documentclass[12pt]{memoir} \usepackage{kantlipsum} \begin{document} \kant[2] \section*{References} {\parindent0pt \parskip\baselineskip \everypar{\hangindent.9cm} Leyser, Karl J. \textit{Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours, 900--1250}. London, England: The Hambledon Press, 1982. Marongiu, Antonio. ``A Model State in ...


1

The image you show is not generated by posted code, in article class \paragraph is an inline heading so produces Para Blah blah The word Para is not indented so it is hard to guess what effect you intended \noindent to have. Note that \paragraph is a section head and should only be used in the sequence \section, \subsection, \subsubsection, \paragraph. ...


1

With results similar to Gonzalo's answer but made with tcolorbox. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{lipsum}% just to generate text for the example \usepackage[most]{tcolorbox} \newtcolorbox{tcbsiderules}[1][]{blanker, breakable, left=3mm, right=3mm, top=1mm, bottom=1mm, borderline vertical={1pt}{0pt}{black}, before upper=\indent, ...


1

In book paragraph is defined by \newcommand\paragraph{\@startsection{paragraph}{4}{\z@}% {3.25ex \@plus1ex \@minus.2ex}% {-1em}% {\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries}} the space after the heading is 1em specified by the 5th argument to \@startsection ...



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