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8

I took the opportunity to improve your expression: the internal parentheses are unnecessary, and we can fine-tune the size of delimiters. Altenatively, we can use \exp and the medium-sized fractions from nccmath: \documentclass[a4paper, 11pt]{book} \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} \usepackage{fourier, heuristica} \usepackage{mathtools, nccmath} ...

7

do you want this equation? \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} $P(S_t) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi t S_t} \sigma} \mathrm{e}^{\left [ -\frac{1}{2t} \left ( \frac{\log \left ( \frac{St}{S_0} \right ) - \mu t }{\sigma} \right ) ^2 \right]}$ \end{document}

6

I would tweak your formula as follows: Use \exp[...] instead of e^{...} notation Don't use \left and \right to autosize the parentheses; use \big and \bigg instead. Fine-tune the position of the "2" exponent, and add a thinspace before the final closing square bracket. \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \[ P(S_t) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi t S_t} ...

6

Just brace the offending bit: \begin{prop}[Existência de {$\sqrt[n]{a}$}, $a > 0$, $n \in \mathbb{Z}_{>0}$] Sejam $a >0$ e $n \in \mathbb{Z}_{>0}$. Existe $b \in \R_{>0}$ tal que $b^n = a$. \end{prop} The problem is that ] after n is otherwise taken as the closing delimiter for the optional argument. This is a common problem when a command ...

6

You are missing braces around the exponent. So TeX is trying to write e to the power of left bracket. And TeX is different than Python etc. Don't use spurious whitespaces. You will get strange results once in a while and will drive you crazy while debugging.

5

The best way to proceed here is to locally redefine \abovecaptionskip and \belowcaptionskip (default value=7pt). The following example shows this redefinition (it's local since it's done inside an environment): \documentclass{beamer} \mode<presentation> {\usetheme{Madrid}} \usepackage{graphicx} % Allows including images \usepackage{booktabs} % Allows ...

4

An optional argument can't have a ] in it (because the parser thinks that's where the optional argument ends), but there are workarounds. In this case, I \def\tmp{\sqrt[n]} before the prop environment, and then use \tmp in the optional argument instead of \sqrt[n]. Alternately, it might be more readable to place the whole optional argument in \tmp, as in ...

3

that perhaps there might be some case where that message is not generated, but the PDF file does not contain any content, or there are other catastrophic failures that can occur. This document doesn't produce any error or "no output PDF produced" warning but may be considered as perhaps an error that should be fixed. It may or may not be a case of the ...

3

You still had some double back-slashed where they should not be. In front of display math, for example. And some in-line math had to be broken over the line which could cause such errors. You should not use double back-slashes at all. If you want to have a new paragraph, do a blank line (no matter, if you use parskip or parindent then). If you want to ...

2

In addition to replacing all remaining \\ (double backslash) instances with a simple blank line, I also recommend you replace all instances of : (colon) in math mode with \colon make use of pre-defined "math operators" such as \ker replace one or the other inline-math expression with a display-math construct. Most importantly, you should convert ...

2

I used \par not \\ (usually), used \textbf not \bf (which shouldn't be used in latex) and added a missing \par in the scope of \raggedright (otherwise it does nothing) and use tabular not tabular* (tabular* can do nothing unless you add stretch glue between the columns). \documentclass{article} \usepackage{calc} \setlength{\parindent}{0pt} ...

2

You could use the optional argument of the sectioning commands: \subsection[shorter title]{longer title} In this way LaTeX will show the longer title in the main document, using the shorter version for headings and toc entries.

1

Perhaps you might consider this simpler alternative. You can customize the list's appearance using the enumitem package if you like. \documentclass{article} \newcommand{\Job}[3]{% \textbf{#1}, #2\newline #3% } \begin{document} \begin{itemize} \item[2013--] \Job{Rice University}{Houston, TX}{Associate Professor} \item[2000--2012] \Job{Harvard ...

1

As there are usually many ways to obtain results in LaTeX, this is yet another. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{align} P(S_{t}) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi t S_{t}} \, \sigma} \cdot \exp{\left[ - \frac{\left( \log \left( \frac{S t}{S_{0}} \right) - \mu t \right)^{2}}{2 \, t \, \sigma^{2}} \right]} \end{align} ...

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