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comment Image placing problems in LaTeX
latex only moves images if you specify that they can be moved by wrapping them in \begin{figure} If you use \includegraphics{zzz} then it is positioned exactly like zzz and will move or not in the same way as tEx breaks lines and pages.
comment Increase tabular first and last padding
ah OK, You could instead do >{\kern\tabcolsep}l for the first column I suppose, and similar with < for the last.
comment How to get last box in vertical mode?
@IgorLiferenko not exactly, although in general you have access to TeX's box tree as a linked tree of lua nodes that you can inspect, and with care modify. Code example would take too much time during the day, I would probably be forced to read the manual or some such disaster:-)
comment How to make the minipages continue after each other in one page?
why are you using minipage here?
comment Tabulary on a rotated page does not use correct \textwidth
@kando whatever your problem is it's almost certainly a duplicate (there are only so many ways a box can be full) but it won't be a duplicate of this question.
comment Tabulary on a rotated page does not use correct \textwidth
@kando there are no overfull hboxes that result from this answer. If you have overfull boxes perhaps some text doesn't fit something but you should open a new question, not in a comment on an old answer, and give an example that demonstrates the problem.
comment Writing two partial differential equations in LaTeX
don't use $ inside equation you are already in math mode.
comment font consistency in environment (theorem…) and in general text
@user565739 You don't want to change the fact that that you use medium {m}, normal shape ({n}) fonts in T1 encoding, you just want to change the family from cmr to bhc and you don't want to do it in just one place (for which \usefont could perhaps be used) You want to change the document default, so you just need to redefine the macro holding the default. That is all the \renewcommand does, it doesn't select any font. then \begin{document} (and other places) will select the default font to set things up, and that is now defined to be the bch setup
comment Changing graphicx default float positioning
in addition to setting the defaults, note that [htbpH] is an error: you can not include H with other float parameters it has to be just [H] the whole point is that H makes it a non-float so combining with other options is not possible.
comment How to print `n` arguments in a command?
a macro argument only needs to be surrounded by braces if it is more than one tokens so \foobar abc is typically legal with a b and c being #1, #2, #3. You need some kind of terminator but as others have said the latex syntax here should be \foobar{a,b,c,d,e}
comment Order table by row
scaling tables is horrible:-) but if you must scale beware adding space: you have a word spaces at the start of your resizebox due to missing %.
comment Latex class for one page document
article (don't use minimal unless you know what it does, and doesn't do)
comment Using Needspace within paragraph provides too much space
see comment about \ht0 added to question
comment Using Needspace within paragraph provides too much space
apart from the fact that Needspace itself is adding to the space \ht0 is not the length you want (I would guess) your \setbox (could have use standard latex \sbox) is measuring a minipage which by default is vertically centred so \ht0 is half its vertical extent (more or less)
comment Why isn't XeTeX embraced as the default TeX engine?
In your clarified question you say you use Unicode for European letters. actually pdflatex and inputenc package work quite well for that, it is different if you are using large Asian encodings where the 256 characters per font restriction in classic means that xetex or luatex have massive advantage.
comment How to generate pdf using LuaTeX from java code
This seems to be a pure java question so probably off topic here. java has the ability to execute a system commandline so you just want to execute the string lualatex file.tex
comment package pdflscape gives wrong values in ToC
Impossible to tell from just an unusable fragment but both \clearpage look wrong, just put \thispagestyle inside the landscape environment
comment How should I include unicode characters in LaTeX? Is XeTeX better? I am using Ubuntu 14.04, do i need to install additional font package?
for pdftex if you are using european characters in UTF-8 Unicode encoding just add \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
comment Resolving troubles with line breaking in paragraph
As I say I think it's the wrong approach. You have one bad word so to try to add a non standard hyphen near the end of the word you reduce righthyphenmin and so potentially get bad hyphenation anywhere in the paragraph. Far better to add \- at the point where you want the hyphenation to happen.
comment Why \moveleft does not contribute to width and \moveright does?
\moveright 1pt \rlap{\vbox....