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5h
comment Format note field given date according to the given style
Yes. And note that it is provide command. That means you can have in your .tex file a \newcommand\mystring[2]{Actually do #2 and #1} and redefine it as necessary. Very portable. Or, like I said, you could use the powers of Biber to change the actual input.
7h
comment \paragraph{} sectioning with eledmac/eledpar
What's going in the \paragraph or \textbf? Are you counting something, or might it be a combination or text and numbers?
7h
comment Format note field given date according to the given style
What about @preamble{ "\providecommand{\mystring}[2]{#1 and #2}" } and then note={Published online in \mystring{Dec.}{2013}}, ..? (Modify as needed --- e.g., set up something for months with \ifcase.)
8h
comment Format note field given date according to the given style
You may if you do it yourself. The note field is, in biblatex, a "literal field", which is "printed as is". You can style the whole field with \DeclareFieldFormat, but you can't (normally) operate on elements within the field. With backend=biber, however, you can fiddle with things on the fly using regexp. Might be easier to just fix the field yourself, though.
8h
comment the \usepackage{parskip} and \setlength{\parindent}{0pt} could not solve my problem of indentation
Most of the \include lines are probably superfluous. Part of making a MWE is learning which parts are irrelevant by commenting them out and seeing if the problem persists. If the problem does persist, then the commented out part did not contribute to the problem (and, therefore, you can remove it from the code posted here).
8h
comment Trim size as fundamental TeX value
In addition to The TeXbook, you might want to look at TeX by Topic.
15h
comment How can I make a professional looking article layout?
It is important to understand that you can design and create a document to your tastes without creating a .cls. Creating a .cls file is extra work, and only useful (aside from general interest and/or learning how to do it) if you are going to create several documents in that same style and want a clean and minimal preamble. Many of my own documents look quite different, and yet I rarely (i.e., virtually never) bother with creating a .cls for them.
15h
comment How can I make a professional looking article layout?
I have read that document. That is one of many, many documents available. The point is that is not a document about design, for which you will need to load, use, and understand packages in order to achieve certain effects (e.g., one-column abstracts in two-column document, styling headers, etc., etc.). Only once you understand how to use all these is it worth your time to work with clsguide, which tells you how to load packages and set-up options and so forth. IMO, you are starting at the wrong end: trying to design a class when you don't understand LaTeX yet
15h
comment Downloaded: xlop.sty and xlop.tex file. Which specific directory to install ?
I don't use OSX (or whatever), but that has a 99.99% chance of being the wrong place to install any package.
23h
comment How do I completely customize the presentation of a bibliography?
What is the BibTeX formta bringing to the table, exactly? Regardless, you do not want to create a .bst for a glorified .csv: use biblatex if you must, but I don't see why datatool (which includes databib, by the way) won't do.
23h
comment Exacting footnote specifications
No, there is no package that does this out of the box. And there shouldn't be: nesting footnotes within (as it were) footnotes runs contrary to the (standard) method of separate footnote levels. (However, I think this could be mimicked if need be.) Certainly TeX should not have to detect that a footnote is in a footnote and then "next-level" it automatically. Also: for you to define where to break footnotes in a page (presumably while TeX figures out where to break the main text) is quite contrary to one main thing that TeX is designed to do: namely, decide when to ship out pages of text.
1d
comment How can I make a professional looking article layout?
LaTeX documentation is hardly "pretty much non-existent"! Virtually every package, and certainly every good package, comes with documentation. The problem is that it takes a long time to read it all, not that it is missing. (And not all documentation was created equal, or for all equally.) But if you are serious about document design, you need to get beyond LyX and start learning TeX, ConTeXt, LaTeX and/or other formats. It also sounds like you want or need to learn about document design, which is a whole extra beast: good *TeX programming skill doesn't automagically mean good design skill!
1d
comment PDF viewer crashes when creating complex picture in Tikz
You on TL 2014 or 2015? Can't update 2014 anymore. (Note: I also can't speak about Macs.)
1d
comment PDF viewer crashes when creating complex picture in Tikz
Cool picture -- but with TikZ?!
1d
comment ! LaTeX Error: File `filename.cls' not found
The class (.cls) and the style files .sty is where most of the mainstream stuff is loaded; your personal refinements go in the preamble. And as a general policy, don't name your article article.tex when you're going to be using article.cls and/or article.sty.
1d
comment ! LaTeX Error: File `filename.cls' not found
If your file is called p1.tex, then you probably still need to pick a document class .cls file like article.cls by using \documentclass{article}.
1d
comment Properly writing an enumerated list in different lines within a sentence
Off-topic. But this kind of writing is (unfortunately) common in statutory writing. See, e.g., this random example. Re-write it if at all possible if it is part of a larger prose piece.
1d
answered Memoir, xelatex: how to change chaptitlefont?
1d
comment Memoir, xelatex: how to change chaptitlefont?
Fonts are usually more than just a .sty file. The CTAN page includes installation instructions, which you should follow.
1d
comment LaTeX cannot find installed packages
No: The $PATH variable is so your system can find the commands latex and so forth, not find the packages.