The following does not work in LaTeX because logic symbols can only be used in maths mode:

\texttt{\forall x(\exists y((f(x)=y)\land(\neg(g(y)=y))))}

I want to do this to stress the nature of such formulas as strings (mathematical objects). The logic symbols should look more similar to the other fixed-width symbols than to normal maths mode symbols. I would then also be able to write the following:

If $\phi$ is a formula of first-order logic and $x$ is a variable, then
\texttt{\forall$x$($\phi$)} is again a formula of first-order logic.

What's the best way to do this? Obviously, using different commands instead of \forall, \land etc. is fine. Directly entering unicode maths characters would be even better:


If $\phi$ is a formula of first-order logic and $x$ is a variable, then
\texttt{∀$x$($\phi$)} is again a formula of first-order logic.

I tried XeTeX with \usepackage{utf8x} and it doesn't work. The negation symbol gives "Character172appearedalone", and the other characters are simply not printed.

[Added after first response]

The following is so far the best approximation:


\noindent\texttt{\Forall x\Exists y(x\Land y)}\\
\texttt{abcde\Forall x\Exists y(x\Land y)}

The usage example demonstrates that the logic symbols do not have precisely the right width. But it's sufficient for my needs, at least initially. I guess for the final solution I will look up how to make these symbols use width zero and print them over a monotype space character.


This is no problem with XeTeX if you load a font that contains these characters:



\setmainfont{DejaVu Serif}
\setsansfont{DejaVu Sans}
\setmonofont{DejaVu Sans Mono}



If $\phi$ is a formula of first-order logic and $x$ is a variable, then
\texttt{∀$x$($\phi$)} is again a formula of first-order logic.


Note: Never load the inputenc package when compiling with XeTeX.

  • Results using DejaVu Sans Mono: DejaVu Sans Mono

  • Results using FreeMono: FreeMono

  • I tried this on my system (MikTeX 2.8 on Windows XP, numerous special fonts installed): The \land and the \neg come out fine, but the quantifiers are missing in the PDF. I assume this is a font problem? – Hans Adler Feb 2 '11 at 11:52
  • @Hans: Yes, you need to make sure that the monospace font selected via \setmonofont contains the characters in question. I chose DejaVu Sans Mono for my example because I know it contains them. – Philipp Feb 2 '11 at 12:00
  • @Philipp: I looked at my type 1 DejaVu Sans Mono font in a font viewer, and it turns out the quantifiers are present in it but wider than the other characters. Very odd. Perhaps that's why they don't appear in the PDF? – Hans Adler Feb 2 '11 at 12:21
  • Actually, my font viewer displays the quantifiers in all my fonts, even the most exotic ones, and they tend to not fit into a font's general style. So I guess the font viewer takes them from fall-back fonts without telling me, and they are not actually present in my version of DejaVu Sans Mono. This page confirms that the quantifiers are not present in the font: xahlee.org/emacs/emacs_unicode_fonts.html Still looking for one that works, preferably with serifs. – Hans Adler Feb 2 '11 at 12:31
  • DejaVu Sans Mono does contain ∀ and ∃, see the coverage table (page 24) or this page. I've added a screenshot of the result. – Philipp Feb 2 '11 at 13:29

can't you use $\mathtt{\forall x(\exists y((f(x)=y)\land(\neg(g(y)=y))))}$ ?

  • Thanks! I completely forgot about \mathtt. I am not completely happy with this because it's not fixed-width: In particular the parentheses are too narrow and the \land is even spaced as an operator. But I guess I can combine this with \texttt and create special commands for the operators to get the spacing approximately right. – Hans Adler Feb 2 '11 at 11:09

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.